Alexis Templeton remembers January 12, 2014, as the day the baptize exploded. A athletic Pyrex bottle, closed bound and abounding with water, access like a balloon.
Templeton had aloof guided her Acreage Cruiser aloft the bumpy, rock-strewn attic of Wadi Lawayni, a broad, barren basin that cuts through the mountains of Oman. She anchored beside a accurate belvedere that rose from the ground, actualization a afresh accomplished baptize well. Templeton uncapped the able-bodied and bargain a canteen into its atramentous depths, acquisitive to aggregate a sample of baptize from 850 anxiety beneath the surface.
Wadi Lawayni is amid by pinnacles of chocolate-brown rock, adamantine as bowl yet angled and billowing like age-old mud-brick ruins. This fragment of the Earth’s interior, almost the admeasurement of West Virginia, was advance to the apparent through an blow of bowl tectonics millions of years ago. These alien rocks—an aberration on Earth—had captivated Templeton to Oman.
Shortly afterwards she hoisted her sample from the well, the canteen access from centralized pressure. The baptize gushed out through the cracks, bubbles like soda. The gas erupting from it was not carbon dioxide, as it is in bendable drinks, but hydrogen—a combustible gas.
Templeton is a geobiologist at the University of Colorado at Boulder, and to her, the gas has appropriate significance: “Organisms adulation hydrogen,” she says. They adulation to eat it, that is. The hydrogen in the sample was not, itself, affirmation of life. But it appropriate that the rocks beneath the apparent ability be the array of abode area action can flourish.
Templeton is one of a growing cardinal of scientists who accept that the Earth’s abysmal subsurface is awash with life. By some estimates, this adopted abode may accommodate anywhere from a tenth to one-half of all animate amount on Earth.
Scientists accept begin bacilli animate in granite rocks 6,000 anxiety underground in the Rocky Mountains, and in seafloor debris animate aback the age of the dinosaurs. They accept alike begin tiny animals—worms, shrimp-like arthropods, barbate rotifers—among the gold deposits of South Africa, 11,000 anxiety beneath the surface.
We bodies tend to see the apple as a solid basement coated with a attenuate band of life. But to scientists like Templeton, the planet looks added like a caster of cheese, one whose thick, coriaceous case is perpetually gnawed and brewed by the bacilli that abide its innards. Those creatures draw aliment from sources that complete not alone inedible, but additionally intangible: the diminutive adulteration of radioactive elements, the pressure-cooking of rocks as they bore and cook into the Earth’s abysmal interior—and conceivably alike earthquakes.
Templeton had appear to Oman in chase of a hidden haven of life. That buzz of hydrogen gas in 2014 was a able assurance that she was assimilate something. So this accomplished January, she and her colleagues returned, captivated on conduct 1,300 anxiety into these rocks and award out what lived there.
On a hot winter afternoon, a glottal barrage reverberated aloft the sun-drenched amplitude of Wadi Lawayni. A annoyer sat a the centermost of the valley. Army on its advanced was a aerial assignment shaft, spinning several times per second.
Half a dozen men in adamantine hats, best of them Indian workers animate by a bounded company, operated the drill. Templeton and a half-dozen added scientists and alum acceptance congregated a few yards away, beneath the adumbration of a awning that billowed in the affable breeze. They angled over tables, analytical the sections of bean amount actuality brought up by the workers every hour or so.
The rig had been animate for a day, and the cores advancing out of the arena were alteration blush as the assignment penetrated added into the earth. The top few anxiety of bean were brave orange and yellow, advertence that oxygen from the apparent had angry the adamant in the basement into decayed minerals. By 60 anxiety beneath the surface, those fingerprints of oxygen petered out, and the bean blurred to greenish-gray, spider-webbed with atramentous veins.
“This is admirable rock,” said Templeton, animate a latex-gloved feel over its surface. Her sunglasses were pushed aback over her beeline amber hair, absolute cheekbones blurred from years of animate alfresco on ships, on aing islands, in the aerial Arctic, and everywhere abroad her assignment has taken her. “I’m acquisitive we see a lot added of this,” she said.
The green-black basement was giving her a aing attending at article that is all but absurd to beam aloof about anywhere abroad on the planet.
These rocks from abysmal central the Apple are affluent in iron—iron in the anatomy of minerals that don’t commonly survive anywhere a the planet’s surface. This cavern adamant is so chemically reactive, so acquisitive to amalgamate with oxygen, that aback it comes in acquaintance with baptize underground, it rips the baptize molecules apart. It yanks out the oxygen—the “O” in H2O—and leaves abaft H2, or hydrogen gas.
Geologists alarm this action “serpentinization,” for the anfractuous veins of black, green, and white minerals that it leaves behind. Serpentinization usually happens alone in places aloof to humans, such as accoutrements of anxiety beneath the attic of the Atlantic Ocean.
Here in Oman, though, deep-earth rocks accept been aerial so aing to the apparent that serpentinization occurs alone a few hundred anxiety underground. The hydrogen gas that access Templeton’s baptize canteen in 2014 was a tiny sample of serpentinization’s yield; one baptize well, accomplished a few years ago in this aforementioned region, appear so abounding hydrogen that it was advised an access risk—prompting the government to allowance it shut with concrete.
Hydrogen is appropriate stuff. It was one of the fuels that propelled the Apollo missions, and the amplitude shuttles, into orbit; ounce for ounce, it is one of the best energy-dense artlessly occurring compounds on Earth. This makes it an important aliment for bacilli beneath Earth’s surface.
All told, the bacilli animate beneath the mountains of eastern Oman may absorb accoutrements of accoutrements of hydrogen anniversary year—resulting in a slow, controlled agitation of the gas, absolutely choreographed by the enzymes central their water-filled cells.
But that hydrogen aliment alone bisected the blueprint of life: To aftermath action from hydrogen, bacilli charge article to bake it with, aloof as bodies drag oxygen to bake food. Addition out what the bacilli are “breathing” so far underground, aloft the ability of oxygen, is a key allotment of Templeton’s mission.
At two in the afternoon, a aged auto barter trundled accomplished the assignment armpit on a arenaceous adobe track. Abaft it, six band trotted in bound formation, their animate bobbing in the air: bounded livestock, tethered on abbreviate leashes, actuality led to a beginning application of rangeland about up the wadi.
Templeton, absent to the camels, alleged out in excitement: “Gold!” She acicular to a area of amount lying on the table, and to a dime-sized array of chicken brownish crystals. Their cubic shapes appear her little joke: The crystals were not absolute gold, but fool’s gold, additionally accepted as pyrite.
Pyrite, composed of adamant and sulfur, is one of dozens of minerals accepted to be “biogenic”: Its accumulation is sometimes triggered by microbes. The crystals adhere from the adulteration articles that microbial beef exhale. So these pyrite crystals could be a byproduct of bacillus metaism—a achievability Templeton calls “beautiful.”
Back home in Colorado, she’ll accord these crystals the aforementioned accurate absorption that an archaeologist would allot to a Roman debris pile. She’ll cut them into cellophane slices and actualization them beneath a microscope. If the pyrite is, in fact, the artefact of animate cells, she says, afresh the bacilli “might alike be entombed in the minerals.” She hopes to acquisition their anachronistic bodies.
Not until the aboriginal 1990s did anyone doubtable that abounding action ability abide the abysmal earth. The aboriginal affirmation came from the rocks that sit beneath the seafloor.
Geologists had connected noticed that agitable glass, begin in dark, basaltic rocks that lay hundreds to accoutrements of anxiety beneath the seafloor, was generally riddled with diminutive pits and tunnels. “We had no abstraction that this ability be biological,” says Hubert Staudigel, a volcanologist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California.
In 1992, a adolescent scientist alleged Ingunn Thorseth, of the University of Bergen in Norway, appropriate that the pits were the geologic agnate of tooth cavities: Bacilli had categorical them into the agitable bottle as they captivated atoms of iron. In fact, Thorseth begin what appeared to be asleep beef central the cavities—in basement samples calm from 3,000 anxiety beneath the seafloor.
When these discoveries unfolded, Templeton had not yet entered the field. She accomplished a master’s amount in geochemistry in 1996, afresh took a job at the Lawrence Berkeley National Class in California, area she advised how bound bacilli were bistro the jet ammunition anchored in the adobe of a aloft U.S. Navy base. A few years later, for her Ph.D. analysis at Stanford, she advised how underground bacilli metaize lead, arsenic, and added pollutants.
In 2002, she confused to Scripps to assignment with Bradley Tebo, a analysis professor, and Staudigel, on a accompanying question: How were bacilli animate off the adamant and added metals in basaltic bottle from the seafloor?
In November of that year, on the aback accouter of a analysis address in the average of the Pacific Ocean, she climbed bottomward the bear of the Pisces-IV, a car-sized submersible, and was bargain into the sea. Terry Kerby, a pilot with the Hawaii Undersea Analysis Laboratory, guided the ability to the southern abruptness of Loihi Seamount, an undersea abundance a Hawaii’s Big Island.
At a abyss of 5,600 feet, the sub’s floodlights dimly aflame a affected undersea landscape: a assortment of what resembled black, billowing debris bags, about ample into aerial pinnacles. These alleged pillow basalts had formed decades or centuries afore as basement oozed from cracks, encountered seawater, and flash-cooled into lobes of burnished rock. Templeton lay on her ancillary on a bench, arranged up adjoin the cold, and watched through a blubbery bottle aperture as Kerby bankrupt off pieces of basalt with the craft’s automatic barb arms. Eight hours afterwards they were bargain into the ocean, they alternate to the apparent with 10 pounds of rock.
The aforementioned year, she and Staudigel visited Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano, acquisitive to aggregate microbe-free agitable bottle that they could analyze with their abyssal samples. Clad in abounding boots, they absolved assimilate an animate basement flow, treading on a atramentous band of accustomed basement aloof bisected an inch thick. Staudigel begin a atom area the orange, aqueous basement had burst through the aloft crust. He biconcave up the aglow actual with a metal pole and plopped it—like hot, adhesive honey—into a brazier of water. It hissed and crackled, baking the baptize as it accustomed into beginning glass.
Back in the lab, Templeton abandoned dozens of the bacterial strains that bleed adamant and manganese out of the abyssal rocks. She and her colleagues remelted the antiseptic bottle from Kilauea in a furnace, benumbed it with altered amounts of adamant and added nutrients, and grew the bacterial strains from the seafloor on it. She acclimated adult X-ray techniques to watch, fascinated, as the bacilli digested the minerals.
“I accept a basement abounding of basalt from the seafloor because I can’t let it go,” she told me one day during a breach in the drilling.
But those rocks, and the critters that bite on them, had one aloft check for Templeton: They came from the seafloor, area the baptize contains oxygen.
Oxygen sustains every beastly on Earth, from aardvarks to earthworms to jellyfish; our atmosphere and best of our ocean is brimming of it. But Apple has alone been awful oxygenated for a tiny atom of its history. Alike today, all-inclusive swaths of our planet’s abode accept never encountered oxygen. Go added than a few anxiety into bedrock, and it’s about nonexistent. Go anywhere abroad in the solar system, including places like Mars that ability anchorage life, and you won’t acquisition it, either.
As Templeton explored Earth’s abysmal biosphere, she had become captivated in how action originated on Earth—and area abroad it ability abide in the solar system. The subsurface could accommodate a window into those abroad places and times, but alone if she could burrow deeper, beneath the ability of oxygen.
The mountains of east Oman seemed like the absolute place. This massive slab of boring serpentinizing basement preserves, in its interior, the oxygen-deprived altitude and chemically acknowledging adamant minerals that are anticipation to abide abysmal central the planet.
Templeton and several added deep-biosphere advisers affiliated with a aloft accomplishment that was in aboriginal planning stages—the Oman Conduct Project.
The accomplishment was co-led by Peter Kelemen, a geologist at the Lamont-Doherty Apple Observatory in New York. He had his own mission: The deep-earth rocks in Oman acknowledge not alone with oxygen and baptize but additionally with carbon dioxide, affairs the gas out of the atmosphere and locking it into carbonate minerals—a action that, if understood, could advice altruism account some of its carbon emissions.
Kelemen was present during the conduct at Wadi Lawayni in January 2018. And he was bullish on the affairs of award life. These rocks had originally formed at a temperature of added than 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit. But they would accept rapidly cooled, and today the top thousand anxiety of basement hover about 90 degrees Fahrenheit. These rocks, he said, “have not been hot abounding to annihilate bacilli aback the Cretaceous”—the age of the dinosaurs.
At three in the afternoon at the assignment site, bisected a dozen aggregation associates aggregate a the rig for what had become an alternate ritual: a moment of suspense.
A new area of core, afresh aloft from the borehole, was bargain assimilate a sawhorse—a bean 10 anxiety connected and as big about as the fat end of a baseball bat, active in a metal pipe.
Workers aerial one end of the pipe. And out slid the core—along with a burst of atramentous gunk. Glops of thick, aphotic carrion dripped on the ground. The amount was covered from end to end.
“Oh my god,” addition said. “Oya.” Murmurs all around.
A artisan wiped bottomward the core, and pinprick bubbles erupted on its smooth, bright surface—reminiscent of the bubbles in hot affable oil. The stone, no best pressurized underground, was degassing afore our eyes, the bubbles squirting out through pores in the rock. The odor of avenue and burnt elastic rose into the air—a aroma that had burning acceptation for the scientists present.
“That basement is actively alive,” said Templeton.
“Hydrogen sulfide,” said Kelemen.
Hydrogen sulfide—a gas begin in sewers, in your intestines, and, apparently, underground in Oman—is produced by bacilli animate in the absence of oxygen. Deprived of that life-giving gas, they cull a ambush that no beastly on Apple can do: They breathe article else. In added words, they bake their aliment application some added actinic that is accessible underground.
The sections of amount brought up so far offered clues about what they ability be breathing. The baroque amount was crisscrossed by bands of orange-brown stone—marking the places area hot magma had spurted through abysmal fissures in the Apple millions of years before, aback this basement lay afar underground.
Those bands of deposit magma would accept gradually bled their actinic apparatus into the groundwater—including a atom alleged sulfate, which consists of a distinct sulfur atom brindled with four oxygen atoms. The bacilli were apparently application this atom to abstract hydrogen, said Templeton: “They eat the hydrogen and they breathe the sulfate.” And then, they breathe fart gas.
Hydrogen sulfide isn’t aloof stinky. It is additionally toxic. So the actual bacilli that aftermath it additionally run the accident of contagion themselves as it accumulates underground. How did they abstain accomplishing so? Already again, the basement provided clues.
As conduct connected over the aing several days, the atramentous goo petered out. Anniversary new area of amount was dry and stink-free. But the bean itself had changed: Its circuitous of veins and convolute minerals had blurred into shades of gray and black, like a checkerboard shirt blood-soaked in ink.
“All of that blackening is a bio-product,” Templeton said one afternoon, as she and her analysis associate, Eric Ellison, awash central a awkward class trailer, packing samples of basement to accelerate home. Some of the rocks sat in a closed Plexiglass box, and Ellison handled them with his easily amid through gloves army in the walls of the box—giving the actualization that the rocks independent article sinister. But the anticipation wasn’t advised to assure humans; it was meant to accumulate the aerial bacilli out of acquaintance with oxygen.
Templeton speculated that the bacilli had decrepit the best contempo basement samples: The hydrogen sulfide they exhaled had reacted with adamant in the surrounding stone, creating adamant sulfide—a controllable atramentous mineral. The pyrite minerals we’d apparent beforehand were additionally composed of adamant and sulfide, and could accept formed the aforementioned way.
These atramentous minerals are added than an bookish curiosity. They accommodate a glimpse of how bacilli accept not alone survived central the Earth’s crust, but additionally adapted it, in some cases basic minerals that ability not contrarily exist.
Some of the world’s ri deposits of iron, lead, zinc, copper, silver, and added metals formed aback hydrogen sulfide latched assimilate metals that had attenuated abysmal underground. The sulfide bound the metals in place, apperception them into minerals that accumulated for millions of years—until they were exhumed by miners. The hydrogen sulfide that formed those ores generally came from agitable sources, but in some cases, it came from microbes.
Robert Hazen, a mineralogist and astrobiologist at the Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C., believes that added than bisected of Earth’s minerals owe their actuality to life—to the roots of plants, to corals and diatoms, and alike to subsurface microbes. He has alike speculated that the world’s seven continents may owe their existence, in part, to bacilli gnawing on rocks.
Four billion years ago, Apple had no abiding land—just a few agitable peaks bulging aloft the ocean. But bacilli on the seafloor may accept helped change that. They attacked iron-rich basalt rocks, abounding as they do today, converting the agitable bottle into adobe minerals. Those clays broiled added readily than added rocks. And already melted, they resolidified into a new affectionate of rock, a actual lighter and fluffier than the blow of the planet: granite.
Those afloat granites accumulated into abundance that rose aloft the ocean, creating the aboriginal abiding continents. This would accept happened to some amount afterwards the advice of microbes, but Hazen suspects that they accelerated the process. “You can brainstorm bacilli alive the balance,” he says. “What we’re arguing is that bacilli played a axiological role.”
The actualization of acreage had a abstruse aftereffect on Earth’s evolution. Rocks apparent to the air bankrupt bottomward added quickly, absolution trace nutrients such as molybdenum, iron, and phosphorus into the oceans. These nutrients spurred the advance of photosynthetic algae, which captivated carbon dioxide and exhaled oxygen. Aloof over 2 billion years ago, the aboriginal traces of oxygen appeared in Earth’s atmosphere. Five hundred and fifty actor years ago, oxygen levels assuredly rose aerial abounding to abutment the aboriginal archaic animals.
Earth’s abounding water, and its optimal ambit from the sun, fabricated it a able incubator for life. But its change into a paradise for intelligent, oxygen-breathing animals was never guaranteed. Bacilli may accept pushed our planet over an airy angled point—and against the accumulation of continents, oxygen, and action as we apperceive it.
Even today, bacilli abide to make, and remake, our planet from the central out.
In some ways, the bacillus abyss resembles animal civilization, with microbial “cities” congenital at the capital of commerce. In Oman, the advancing haven of stinky, atramentous bacilli sat 100 anxiety underground, a the circle of several ample basement fractures—channels that accustomed hydrogen and sulfate to crawl in from altered sources.
Elisabetta Mariani, a structural geologist from the University of Liverpool in England, spent connected canicule beneath the canopy, mapping these breach in the rock. Late one morning, she alleged me over to see article special: a breach acid aslant aloft a core, advertisement two basement faces streaked in cardboard layers of green-and-black serpentine.
“Can you see actuality these grooves?” she asked, in English absolute with her built-in Italian, pointing out scratches that raked the two convolute faces. They showed that this was added than aloof a acquiescent break; it was an animate fault. “Two blocks of rocks accept slipped accomplished anniversary added forth this direction,” she said, gesturing forth the grooves.
Tullis Onstott, a geologist at Princeton University not affiliated with the Oman drilling, believes that such animate faults may do added than aloof accommodate routes for aliment to move underground—they may absolutely aftermath food. In November 2017, Onstott and his colleagues began an adventurous experiment. Starting from a adit 8,000 anxiety bottomward in the Moab Khotsong gold abundance in South Africa, they apathetic a new aperture against a accountability that lay about bisected a mile added still. On August 5, 2014, the accountability had sparked a magnitude-5.5 earthquake. By conduct into it, Onstott hoped to analysis the annoying abstraction that earthquakes accumulation aliment to the abysmal biosphere.
Scientists accept connected noticed that hydrogen gas seeps out of aloft faults such as the San Andreas in California. That gas is produced in allotment by a actinic reaction: Silicate minerals burst during a convulse acknowledge with baptize and absolution hydrogen as a byproduct. For bacilli sitting aing to the fault, that acknowledgment could aftereffect in article like a alternate amoroso rush.
In March 2018, four months afterwards the conduct in the Moab Khotsong abundance began, workers brought up a bean amount that beyond the fault.
The basement forth the accountability was “pretty banged up,” says Onstott—torn with dozens of alongside fractures. The bean lining some of those cracks was ashamed into brittle clay, actualization contempo earthquakes. Added cracks, abounding with veins of white quartzite, apparent earlier ruptures from accoutrements of years before.
Onstott is now analytic those quartzite veins for anachronistic beef and allegory the basement for DNA, in hopes of award out what affectionate of microbes—if any—inhabit the fault.
More importantly, he and his colleagues accept kept the borehole open—monitoring water, gases, and bacilli in the fault, and demography new samples anniversary time there’s an aftershock. “You can afresh see whether or not there’s a gas release,” he says, “and whether or not there’s a change in the microbial association because they’re arresting the gas.”
Even as Onstott awaits those results, he is starting to accede an alike added aitionist possibility: that deep-dwelling bacilli don’t aloof augment off of earthquakes, but ability additionally activate them. He believes that as bacilli advance the iron, manganese, and added elements in the minerals that band the fault, they could abate the rock—and prime the accountability for its aing big slip. Exploring that achievability would beggarly accomplishing class abstracts to acquisition out whether bacilli in a accountability can absolutely breach bottomward minerals bound abounding to affect seismic activity. With a scientist’s appropriate understatement, he contemplates the assignment ahead: “It’s a reasonable antecedent to test.”
By January 30, the assignment in Wadi Lawayni had accomplished a abyss of 200 feet. Its motor growled in the accomplishments as Templeton and her colleague, Eric Boyd, adequate in affected chairs beneath an acacia tree. Strewn at their anxiety lay the signs of added travelers who had paused in this attenuate island of shade—nodules of biscuit dung, bland and annular like coriaceous plums.
“We anticipate that this is an ambiance that’s important for compassionate the origins of life,” said Boyd, a geobiologist from Montana State University in Bozeman. That potential, he said, is allotment of what captivated him and Templeton to these deep-earth rocks in Oman: “We like hydrogen.”
Both Boyd and Templeton accept that action on Apple started in an ambiance agnate to that which lies a few yards beneath their affected chairs. They accept that action began aural subsurface fractures, area iron-rich minerals gurgled out hydrogen gas as they reacted with water.
Of all the actinic fuels that existed on Apple 4 billion years ago, hydrogen would accept been one of the easiest for early, inefficient beef to metaize. Hydrogen wasn’t alone produced by serpentinization, either; it was additionally produced—and still is, today—by the radioactive adulteration of elements such as uranium, which consistently splits afar baptize molecules in the surrounding rock. Hydrogen is so labile, so accommodating to breach apart, that it can alike be digested application apathetic oxidants, like carbon dioxide or authentic sulfur. DNA studies of millions of gene sequences advance that the advertiser of all action on Earth—the “last accepted accepted ancestor,” or LUCA—probably did use hydrogen as its food, and austere it with carbon dioxide. The aforementioned ability be accurate for action in added worlds.
The adamant minerals that abide actuality in Oman are accepted aloft the solar system, as is the action of serpentinization. The Reconnaissance Orbiter, a amplitude delving now ambit Mars, has mapped convolute minerals on the Martian surface. The amplitude delving Cassini has begin actinic affirmation of advancing serpentinization abysmal aural Saturn’s arctic moon, Enceladus. Serpentine-like minerals accept been detected on the apparent of Ceres, a dwarf planet that orbits the sun amid Mars and Jupiter. Convolute minerals are alike begin in meteorites, the bits of beginning planets that existed 4.5 billion years ago, aloof as Apple was actuality born—raising the achievability that the cradle of life’s agent absolutely existed afore our planet did.
Hydrogen—an action antecedent for beginning life—was produced in all of these places. It is apparently still actuality produced throughout the solar system.
To Boyd, the implications are breathtaking.
“If you had basement like this, at a temperature agnate to Earth, and you had aqueous water, how assured do you anticipate action is?” he asked. “My claimed acceptance is, it’s inevitable.”
Finding that action will be a challenge. With absolute technologies, a delving beatific to Mars could assignment no added than a few anxiety beneath its adverse surface. Those bank rocks ability accommodate signs of accomplished life—perhaps anhydrous carcasses of Martian cells, sitting central the diminutive tunnels that they chewed into the minerals—but any animate bacilli are acceptable to be animate hundreds of anxiety deeper. Templeton has grappled with the botheration of audition accomplished signs of life—and of appropriate those signs from things that happened afterwards the access of life—ever aback she started attractive at basaltic seafloor glasses 16 years ago.
“My job is to acquisition bio-signatures,” she says. As she studies the rocks accomplished out of Oman, she’ll accountable them to some of the aforementioned accoutrement that she acclimated on the glasses. She will animation X-rays off the mineral apparent in adjustment to map how the bacilli are altering the minerals, and whether they are abrogation metals in abode or carving them away. By acquirements how animate bacilli bite on minerals, she hopes to acquisition reliable means of anecdotic those aforementioned actinic bite marks in exoteric rocks that haven’t captivated animate beef for accoutrements of years.
One day, these accoutrement ability be arranged assimilate a Mars rover. Or they ability be acclimated on rocks that are brought aback from added worlds. For now, she and her colleagues accept affluence to do in Oman, addition out what inhabits the dark, hot, hidden abode beneath their feet.
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