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Fifteen years ago, today, President George W. Bush active the Bread-and-er Growth and Tax Abatement Reconciliation Act of 2001 into law – conceivably the distinct best consequential allotment of tax legislation allowable in the aftermost quarter-century. A decade and a bisected later, it is advantageous to analysis the bequest of this bill, which is generally referred to as the aboriginal of two “Bush tax cuts.”

The Bush tax cuts stemmed from a attack promise

In the backward 1990s, an abnormal accident presented itself to federal lawmakers: for several years in a row, the federal government ran a account surplus. The Brookings Institution alleged the surplus of the backward 1990s “one of the absolute bread-and-er accomplishments in American history,” but policymakers were already debating whether to let the surplus continue, whether to use it to armamentarium new spending programs, or whether to use it to armamentarium tax cuts.

The Republican appointee for President, George W. Bush, took a bright attitude on the issue: the surplus was to be alternate to American households in the anatomy of tax relief. In his accepting accent for the Republican nomination, he said:

“The aftermost time taxes were this aerial as a allotment of our economy, there was a acceptable acumen … We were angry World War II. Today, our aerial taxes armamentarium a surplus. Some say that growing federal surplus agency Washington has added money to spend. But they’ve got it backwards. The surplus is not the government’s money. The surplus is the people’s money.”

Legislative histories of the 2001 tax bill altercate that the cuts stemmed anon from Bush’s promises on the attack trail. Alex Brill writes, “From a political perspective, the Bush tax cut proposals began on the attack aisle in 2000.” Mona Lewandowski addendum that abounding of the apparatus of the 2001 tax bill were answer during the Bush campaign.

It is account befitting in apperception that, like George W. Bush, presidential candidates generally chase through on the tax proposals they accomplish on the attack trail. This is why the Tax Foundation has been befitting aing clue of the tax proposals of above presidential candidates; there’s a acceptable adventitious that some apparatus of these proposals will acquisition their way into law.

The bill set the agreement for the tax agitation amid 2001 and 2012

The 2001 tax bill consisted of several ample tax cuts for individuals and households. Overall, the bill decidedly bargain the absolute akin of federal acquirement collections. In adjustment to accomplish such a ample tax cut politically palatable, and in adjustment to accommodate to procedural rules in the Senate, Congress advised the bill such that best of the accoutrement were set to expire on December 31st, 2010.

The approaching cessation of the Bush tax cuts became a above focus of the tax agitation during the aboriginal decade of the century. The approaching of the Bush tax cuts was a axial affair in the 2008 presidential campaign, in which John McCain advocated authoritative about all of the cuts permanent, and Barack Obama alleged for extending the cuts alone for families earning beneath than $250,000.

However, aback the cuts were assuredly due to expire in 2010, President Obama continued the cuts for yet addition two years, gluttonous to avoid a abrupt and affecting tax access on American families in the average of an bread-and-er recovery. As a result, the approaching of the Bush tax cuts became a above attack affair in 2012 as well.

Ultimately, the fate of the Bush tax cuts was acclimatized in the 2012 “fiscal cliff” deal, area Congress absitively already and for all which of the cuts would be fabricated permanent, and which would expire. While the Bush tax cuts are no best a hot political issue, it is account canonizing that the approaching of the cuts active the absorption of the tax action association for over a decade.

Much of the bill has now been fabricated into abiding law

The “fiscal cliff” accord anchored the all-inclusive majority of the 2001 and 2003 Bush tax cuts into abiding law. According to one estimate, 82 percent of the Bush tax cuts were fabricated abiding in 2012, while alone 18 percent were accustomed to expire.

The accord was anesthetized with ample bipartisan majorities in both chambers, admitting the actuality that abounding Democrats initially against the tax cuts in 2001. This is, in ample part, because Democrats artlessly did not appetite to accession taxes on low- and common Americans. Allowing the Bush tax cuts to expire in abounding would accept decidedly added the tax accountability of households authoritative beneath $250,000, a footfall that best legislators were afraid to take.

The chain of the Bush tax cuts for low- and middle- assets Americans should be beheld as a above action bequest of the Bush administration. In essence, George W. Bush argued that the average chic should pay a lower akin of federal taxes, and basically no American baby-kisser has challenged this eyes since. Conceivably the sole barring is Bernie Sanders, who has proposed all-embracing tax increases on Americans in every assets group.

The bill focused on tax relief, rather than structural reform

The capital focus of the Bread-and-er Growth and Tax Abatement Reconciliation Act of 2001 was blurred taxes on all Americans. The bill cut the ante of the top four tax brackets by 3-4 points, added a new 10 percent bracket for low-income households, added the accepted answer for affiliated couples, and angled the adolescent tax credit.

Individual assets tax ante in 2000 (before EGTRRA) for affiliated couples filing jointly

Individual assets tax ante in 2003 (after abounding phase-in of EGTRRA cuts) for affiliated couples filing jointly


$0 to $14,000


$0 to $43,850


$14,000 to $56,800


$43,850 to $105,950


$56,800 to $114,650


$105,950 to $161,450


$114,650 to $174,700


$161,450 to $288,350


$174,700 to $311,950


$288,350 and over


$311,950 and over

Note: bracket thresholds are bidding in nominal dollars of taxable income.

Notably, the 2001 tax bill did not accommodate abounding accoutrement that adapted the anatomy of the U.S. tax code. The bill did not abode the glut of credits, deductions, and exclusions in the alone tax code, nor did it decidedly change the analysis of business investment. In added words, if the acceptable arrangement for tax ameliorate is “broaden the abject and lower the rate,” the 2001 Bush tax cuts alone focused on the additional bisected of this template.

The Republican Party has abundantly confused abroad from the archetypal of the 2001 tax bill

To a ample extent, Republican assembly and presidential candidates accept confused abroad from the access of the 2001 tax bill: the archetypal of ample tax cuts for individuals and households after any offsetting base-broadeners or structural changes to the code. Congressmen such as Devin Nunes accept focused their absorption on the business tax code, rather than the alone assets tax. Meanwhile, abounding of this year’s Republican presidential candidates accept prioritized acid aback on itemized deductions and reimagining the business tax base.

The one barring is Donald Trump. Trump’s tax plan added or beneath follows the arrangement of the 2001 tax bill, with ample amount cuts for households of all assets groups and with few proposals that would adapt the anatomy of the U.S. tax code.

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