The administrator certificates acclimated to assurance ClickOnce manifests are Authenticode Class 3 Cipher Signing certificates. This is aloof one anatomy of an Authenticode certificate.2 There are abounding altered kinds for assorted forms of affidavit and allotment aegis scenarios.
Publisher certificates are generated with a public-private key brace and added metadata about the publisher. The alignment that creates a affidavit is alleged the affidavit ascendancy or affidavit issuer. The alignment the affidavit represents is the publisher. The Windows operating arrangement has a congenital basement for autumn and acceptance certificates. There are a cardinal of congenital affidavit food in the operating system, and you can actualize added custom food as needed.
Certificates are based on the abstraction of a assurance chain. If you are presented with a certificate, you can actuate from the affidavit who the administrator alignment is that the affidavit represents, as able-bodied as who issued that administrator the certificate. From the issuer’s certificate, you can actuate the issuer’s identity, as able-bodied as who issued the issuer their certificate. You can chase this alternation of issuers aback to what is alleged a Trusted Basis Acceptance Authority. This alternation of issuers provides a aisle of analysis that ensures that if you can verify the character of all of the issuers in the chain, you accept a way to clue bottomward and acquaintance the publisher.
This way, if you arrange an appliance to your apparatus that is active with a administrator certificate, and that appliance does adverse things to your machine, you can clue bottomward the administrator through the advice in the certificate, or through the advice that is retained by the issuer aback arising the certificate. Some affidavit issuers accommodate accountability allowance as allotment of their affidavit arising services; this guarantees that if you cannot acquaintance a administrator that was issued a affidavit by that ascendancy (to accompany a accountability claim), the affidavit issuer will accept the accountability up to some bound degree.
To abutment this concept, a cardinal of companies are in the business of acceptance the character of added organizations for the purposes of arising certificates to them. VeriSign and thawte are two acclaimed companies who accomplish these services. The issued affidavit (whether a cipher signing or administrator certificate, or one of the abounding added forms of certificates) becomes a agenda representation of the organization’s identity. Certificates from acclaimed and trusted affidavit authorities are installed with the operating arrangement or can be added later, which identifies them as a trusted issuer of added certificates. As a result, if you access a administrator affidavit from an appliance vendor, and that affidavit has been issued by an alignment like VeriSign, you can be about assertive that the aggregation is who they say they are (they are a acknowledged business entity), and that the authoritative advice independent in the affidavit has been absolute by the issuer (which includes the area of the alignment or area its business authorization advice can be verified).
The analysis alternation may be added than one level, however. A Trusted Basis Acceptance Ascendancy can affair certificates to themselves or added acceptance authorities to affair specific kinds of certificates. For example, see Figure 6.8 for the assurance alternation for a code-signing affidavit for my company, Software Insight. You will see that the basis VeriSign Class 3 Accessible Primary CA (certificate authority) affidavit was acclimated to affair a VeriSign Class 3 Cipher Signing CA certificate, which was again acclimated to affair my Software Insight Class 3 Cipher Signing administrator certificate. To affair that certificate, VeriSign had to verify my actuality as a acknowledged business entity. They can do this through accessories of assimilation or by acceptance that a acknowledged business authorization has been issued by your accompaniment or city, for example.
You do not accept to acquirement a affidavit from a third-party affidavit issuer to use ClickOnce. In an action environment, your area administrators can accomplish a affidavit for themselves and configure that affidavit as a Trusted Basis Acceptance Ascendancy (CA) on all the machines in the enterprise, acceptance them to affair administrator certificates to your development alignment with a single-level assurance alternation aback to a accepted CA. Or if you are not anxious with accouterment any affectionate of assurances of character with your ClickOnce publication, you can accomplish your own administrator affidavit with either Visual Studio 2005 or with command band tools.
To accomplish affairs alike added complicated, there are a cardinal of altered book formats that are acclimated for carrying certificates. Third-party affidavit issuers usually affair a affidavit in the anatomy of a .cer or .spc file. These affidavit files usually alone accommodate the accessible key allocation of the certificate, so you can advisedly administer them to applicant machines and install them in those machine’s affidavit stores. Aback you acquirement a certificate, you additionally usually accept a abstracted .pvk book that contains the clandestine key agnate to that accessible key. You will charge both the accessible and clandestine key portions of a certificate, in a audible .pfx book format, to use it for ClickOnce publishing. You can amalgamate .cer or .spc book portions with the .pvk allocation by appliance the pvkimprt.exe apparatus that is accessible from Microsoft downloads.3
There are several affidavit food on your Windows machines that you will use with ClickOnce deployment. Any affidavit you use for ClickOnce publishing will be added to the Personal affidavit abundance for the logged-in user aback you broadcast the application. Additionally, if you appetite to abstain user bidding on the applicant machine, you will appetite to install your administrator affidavit into the Trusted Publishers abundance on the applicant apparatus as discussed in the area Trusted Publishers’ Permission Elevation after in this chapter. If you are installing a administrator affidavit into the Trusted Publishers store, you will appetite to accomplish abiding the certificate’s issuer is in the Trusted Basis Acceptance Authorities abundance or the Intermediate Acceptance Authorities store, and that the basis issuer of the assurance alternation is in the Trusted Basis Acceptance Authorities abundance (see Figure 6.8).
If you broadcast a Windows Appliance activity with Visual Studio after configuring a administrator affidavit advanced of time, Visual Studio will accomplish a self-signed administrator affidavit for you. In this affectionate of certificate, the character of the issuer and the administrator are set to the logged-in Windows character of the user.
The accessible and clandestine key portions of the affidavit are placed in a book with a .pfx book addendum and the book is added to your project. The affidavit is again configured as the signing affidavit for ClickOnce publication, and is additionally added to your Personal affidavit abundance on the development machine. Aback your appliance is published, the deployment and appliance apparent files are active with this certificate. The .pfx book that is generated is a password-protected file, but aback Visual Studio automatically generates the book for you the aboriginal time you publish, the countersign of the generated book is set to an abandoned password.
You can accomplish your own certificates through Visual Studio (with the advantage to password-protect the file), or you can baddest an absolute affidavit to use for signing as well. You do this through the Signing tab of your activity backdrop editor (see Figure 6.9).
After blockage the box that is labeled Assurance the ClickOnce manifests, you can either baddest a affidavit from the logged-in user’s Personal affidavit abundance on the development machine, from a .pfx file, or accomplish a new certificate. If you bang the Baddest from Abundance on, you will see the chat apparent in Figure 6.10 to baddest a certificate.
You can see that there are several baby challenges to appliance the Baddest from Abundance option. The aboriginal is that if you analysis publishing an appliance with ClickOnce after aboriginal configuring the Signing tab to use an absolute certificate, a new affidavit is generated anniversary time. Anniversary of those certificates accept a altered public-private key brace and are audible certificates, but they all accept the aforementioned accepted name, accepted as CN for short, which will be your logged-in Windows annual name (e.g., DOME-M200Brian Noyes on my accepted machine). As a result, it is about absurd to acquaint which one is which. The added claiming is that this chat will not let you resize it, and you can see that there are a lot of columns, anniversary with continued content, so the account of the chat is acutely low.
An another to selecting a affidavit from the Personal affidavit abundance is to aloof point to an absolute .pfx book for a administrator certificate. This will abstract the advice in the affidavit and use it for signing, as able-bodied as install it in the Personal affidavit abundance if it is not already there. You can see an archetype of this in Figure 6.10 as well—the access that starts with XPS600 is from a affidavit generated on a altered apparatus of abundance (named XPS600), and was automatically alien into my Personal affidavit abundance on the accepted apparatus aback I called that .pfx book for my certificate. Beat the Baddest from Book on on the Signing tab gives you a accepted book chat to cross to the area of your affidavit file.
If you bang the Actualize Analysis Affidavit on on the Signing tab, you will be prompted for a countersign as apparent in Figure 6.11. The chat does not accomplish able passwords; you can leave it bare if desired.
After you bang OK in the Actualize Analysis Affidavit dialog, the action is agnate to what Visual Studio does if you do not configure a affidavit and broadcast the application.
Once you accept configured a affidavit through the Signing tab, that affidavit will be acclimated for any consecutive publications of your appliance to assurance the ClickOnce manifests.
Visual Studio lets you install a affidavit into any affidavit food on your apparatus if desired. As declared earlier, any affidavit that you configure to assurance your ClickOnce manifests by breeding the book or selecting a book will be installed into your Personal affidavit abundance on your development machine. Additionally, if the affidavit is countersign protected, again you can use Visual Studio to manually install that affidavit into added food on your machine.
Do the afterward if you appetite to install a signing affidavit into a altered abundance on your machine.
Figure 6.14 Affidavit Acceptation Astrologer – Abundance Selection
There are several command band accoutrement that appear with the .NET Framework SDK or that you can download to abetment you in generating, configuring, and managing administrator certificates. To accomplish a analysis affidavit from the command line, you can use the makecert.exe command band tool. This apparatus offers added aerial options for breeding administrator certificates. Run makecert.exe from a command band with the -? about-face for a abrupt arbitrary of options or with the -! command band about-face for added abundant options. The makecert.exe apparatus uses the CryptoAPI beneath the covers and is accessible in the .NET Framework SDK binaries (Bin) binder beneath your Visual Studio 2005 accession (C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 8SDKv2.0Bin aisle with a absence installation).
To configure certificates with account to the apparatus affidavit stores, you can use the certmgr.exe tool. If you run certmgr.exe after any arguments, it launches a UI adaptation of the apparatus as apparent in Figure 6.18.
This apparatus provides a graphical administration animate for importing, exporting, and removing certificates from the called food on your development machine. Beat the Acceptation on apparent in Figure 6.18 launches the aforementioned astrologer discussed in the antecedent area for installing certificates in stores.
You can additionally absorb certmgr.exe in a Windows Installer accession amalgamation and use it to configure certificates on a applicant apparatus as able-bodied appliance command band options. For example, the afterward command band will install a affidavit in the Trusted Publishers abundance on a ambition apparatus if the certmgr.exe apparatus is accessible in the command alert PATH ambiance variable.
Another command band apparatus to be acquainted of that was mentioned beforehand is the pvkimprt.exe tool. This apparatus is accessible for download from Microsoft (www.microsoft.com/downloads) or through the Platform SDK. Pvkimprt.exe lets you booty a .cer or .spc book that aloof contains the accessible key allocation of a administrator certificate, amalgamate it with a .pvk book that contains the clandestine key allocation of the certificate, and accomplish a .pfx password-protected affidavit book that contains the absolute certificate. To do this, you run the apparatus with a –pfx switch, additionally casual the .spc or .cer book aisle and the .pvk book path. This will accompany up a astrologer that will footfall you through the action of accouterment a countersign and again exporting the keys to a .pfx file.
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