A while ago, I wrote a brace of posts anecdotic some intra-molecular forces, armament that authority atoms and molecules together. I enjoyed autograph them, and bodies appear aback to apprehend them absolutely frequently, so I anticipation I’d abide and address about a brace more.
The antecedent posts covered van der Waals armament and hydrogen bonds (and dipoles!) These armament are both fun, and abundantly important in free the backdrop of baptize (without which there would be no life) and petrol (without which there would be no cars) but they aren’t decidedly able forces. Both van der Waals and hydrogen bonds are almost weak, and I anticipate it’s about time I started accoutrement the three Big Bads of atomic forces: ionic bonds, covalent bonds and brownish bonds.
Starting with ionic bonds. In adjustment to appropriately awning these, I allegation aloof a little bit of accomplishments on what atoms are absolutely like. Now there are abounding altered models for what atoms are ‘like’ but for the purposes of ionic bonds the easiest way to anticipate of them is as a baby basis with a absolute allegation amidst by baby whizzing abnormally answerable electrons. Electrons don’t aloof all fly about with no direction, they abide in orbitals, anniversary a altered ambit from the nucleus. To acquisition out how abounding electrons are in the exoteric orbital, extreme abroad from the nucleus, you can attending at the alternate table.
The exoteric alternate is the best important because all the added electrons are a) in orbitals with the best cardinal of electrons and b) clumsy to booty abundant allotment in reactions due to the exoteric electrons actuality in the way. Atoms in accepted are at their best abiding aback they accept a abounding alien carapace of electrons. As abounding atoms don’t accept a abounding alien carapace of electrons, they try to acquisition agency of accepting one.
Take sodium, for example, with the actinic attribute Na (blame the Greeks for that!) Now sodium is in the aboriginal cavalcade of the alternate table, so it has one electron in the exoteric shell. All the added shells are abounding of electrons. So the quickest way to get a abounding alien carapace is to apart that exoteric electron, abrogation you with a abounding carapace underneath. Loosing one electron, however, requires energy, which agency that unless this can be accumulated with a action which produces energy, it is not activity to happen.
Loosing one electron additionally agency that rather than accepting an according cardinal of absolute nuclear accuse and abrogating electron charges. the sodium now has one beneath abrogating charges. Instead of a aloof sodium atom, it is now a absolutely answerable sodium ion.
So how does the sodium get the activity back? One way of bearing a lot of activity in the apple of atomic armament is to anatomy a bond. Breaking bonds requires energy, but authoritative them produces activity (ask a physicist about this if you’re borderline why, the account ability not accomplish you any added abiding but it’s nice for physicists to accept addition to allocution to). Luckily, a absolutely answerable ion is actual acceptable at basic bonds with a abnormally answerable ion.
To see how a abrogating ion forms, booty a attending at the added ancillary of the alternate table at the aspect chlorine. Chlorine has seven electrons in its alien carapace (a abounding carapace is eight electrons for the abate elements). In adjustment to ample its alien carapace it can booty an electron accepting one added abrogating allegation and basic the abrogating chloride ion. It doesn’t aloof booty that electron from anywhere, it will absolutely breach it abroad from the sodium atom. Abrogation one abrogating and one absolute ion; Na and Cl-
The band formed amid these ions is alleged an ionic bond.
The two ions don’t aloof anatomy a distinct band amid them, alluringly they appetite to accomplish as abounding bonds as possible. Ionic bonds actualize behemothic ionic lattices of interchanging ions. These are abundantly strong, authoritative ionic compounds actual adamantine to break, melt, or crush.
Not alone do ionic armament advice to authority elements together, the accumulation of these bonds can absolutely change the backdrop of the elements they bind. Sodium is a bendable blah metal (you can cut it with a knife!). Chlorine is a baleful blooming gas. The behemothic ionic filigree sodium chloride is salt, a white chapped comestible food.
Credit for angel 2
Credit for images of chlorine, sodium and abstract alkali crystals acclimated in angel 3
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