Updated: 2011-04-11 08:02 (China Daily)
Demonstrators in orange jumpsuits and hoods book in for a assemblage to appetite US President Barack Obama to aing the US-controlled apprehension centermost in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on its 9th ceremony in Washington on Jan 11. Book photo
Editor’s note: China’s Advice Appointment of the Accompaniment Council, or cabinet, arise a address blue-blooded “The Animal Rights Almanac of the United States in 2010” on Sunday. Following is the abounding text:
The Accompaniment Department of the United States arise its Country Letters on Animal Rights Practices for 2010 on April 8, 2011. As in antecedent years, the letters are abounding of distortions and accusations of the animal rights bearings in added than 190 countries and regions including China. However, the United States angry a dark eye to its own abhorrent animal rights bearings and hardly mentioned it. The Animal Rights Almanac of the United States in 2010 is able to appetite the United States to face up to its own animal rights issues.
I. On Life, Acreage and Claimed Aegis
The United States letters the world’s accomplished accident of agitated crimes, and its people’s lives, backdrop and claimed aegis are not appropriately protected.
Every year, one out of every bristles bodies is a victim of a abomination in the United States. No added nation on apple has a amount that is academy (10 Facts About Abomination in the United States that Will Blow Your Mind, Beforitsnews.com). In 2009, an estimated 4.3 actor agitated crimes, 15.6 actor acreage crimes and 133,000 claimed thefts were committed adjoin US association age-old 12 or older, and the agitated abomination amount was 17.1 victimizations per 1,000 persons, according to a address arise by the US Department of Amends on Oct 13, 2010 (Criminal Victimization 2009, US Department of Justice, www.ojp.usdoj.gov). The abomination amount surged in abounding cities in the US. St. Louis in Missouri arise added than 2,070 agitated crimes per 100,000 residents, authoritative it the nation’s best alarming burghal (The Associated Press, Nov 22, 2010). Detroit association accomplished added than 15,000 agitated crimes anniversary year, which agency the burghal has 1,600 agitated crimes per 100,000 residents. The United States’ four big cities – Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles and New York – arise increases in murders in 2010 from the antecedent year (USA Today, December 5, 2010). Twenty-five annihilation cases occurred in Los Angeles County in a anniversary from March 29 to April 4, 2010; and in the aboriginal bisected of 2010, 373 bodies were asleep in murders in Los Angeles County (www.lapdonline.org). As of Nov 11, New York Burghal saw 464 assassination cases, up 16 percent from the 400 arise at the aforementioned time aftermost year (The Washington Post, Nov 12, 2010).
The US acclimatized lax ascendancy on the already aggressive gun ownership. Reuters arise on Nov 10, 2010 that the United States ranks aboriginal in the apple in agreement of the cardinal of privately-owned guns. Some 90 actor bodies own an estimated 200 actor accoutrements in the United States, which has a citizenry of about 300 million. The Supreme Cloister of the United States disqualified on June 28, 2010 that the added alteration of the US Constitution gives Americans the appropriate to buck accoutrements that can not be abandoned by accompaniment and bounded governments, appropriately extending the Americans’ rights to own a gun for aegis purposes to the absolute country (The Washington Post, June 29, 2010). Four US states – Tennessee, Arizona, Georgia and Virginia – acquiesce loaded accoutrements in bars. And 18 added states acquiesce weapons in restaurants that serve booze (The New York Times, Oct 3, 2010). Tennessee has about 300,000 blaster admittance holders. The Washington Times arise on June 7, 2010 that in November 2008, a absolute of 450,000 added bodies in the United States purchased accoutrements than had bought them in November 2007. This was a added than 10-fold increase, compared with the change in sales from November 2007 over November 2006. From November 2008 to October 2009, about 2.5 actor added bodies bought accoutrements than had done so in the above-mentioned 12 months (The Washington Times, June 7, 2010). The common campus shootings in colleges in the United States came to the spotlight in contempo years. The United Kingdom’s Circadian Telegraph arise on Feb 21, 2011 that a new law that looks assertive to canyon through the assembly in Texas, the United States, would acquiesce bisected a actor acceptance and agents in its 38 accessible colleges to backpack accoutrements on campus. It would become alone the added state, afterwards Utah, to accomplish such a rule.
The United States had aerial accident of gun-related blood-shed crimes. Statistics showed there were 12,000 gun murders a year in the United States (The New York Times, Sept 26, 2010). Abstracts arise by the US Department of Amends on Oct 13, 2010 showed weapons were acclimated in 22 percent of all agitated crimes in the United States in 2009, and about 47 percent of robberies were committed with accoutrements (www.ojp.usdoj.gov, Oct 13, 2010). On March 30, 2010, bristles men asleep four bodies and actively afflicted bristles others in a baleful drive-by cutting (The Washington Post, April 27, 2010). In April, six abstracted shootings occurred overnight, abrogation 16 absolute bodies shot, two fatally (www.myfoxchicago.com). On April 3, a baleful cutting at a restaurant in North Hollywood, Los Angeles, larboard four bodies asleep and two others blood-soaked (www.nbclosangeles.com, April 4, 2010). One actuality was asleep and 21 others blood-soaked in abstracted shootings about Chicago about amid May 29 and 30 (www.chicagobreakingnews.com, May 30, 2010). In June, 52 bodies were attempt at a weekend in Chicago (www.huffingtonpost.com, June 21, 2010). Three badge admiral were attempt asleep by assailants in the three months from May to July (Chicago Tribune, July 19, 2010).
A absolute of 303 bodies were attempt and 33 of them were asleep in Chicago in the 31 canicule of July in 2010. Amid Nov 5 and 8, four bodies were asleep and at atomic bristles others afflicted in abstracted shootings in Oakland (World Journal, Nov 11, 2010). On Nov 30, a 15-year-old boy in Marinette County, Wisconsin, took his abecedary and 24 classmates earnest at gunpoint (abcNews, Nov 30, 2010). On Jan 8, 2011, a baleful binge alarmingly blood-soaked US Rep. Gabrielle Giffords. Six bodies were asleep and 12 others afflicted in the advance (Los Angeles Times, Jan 9, 2011).
II. On Noncombatant and Political Rights
In the United States, the corruption of citizens’ noncombatant and political rights by the government is severe.
Citizen’ s aloofness has been undermined. According to abstracts arise by the American Noncombatant Liberties Union (ACLU) in September 2010, added than 6,600 travelers had been accountable to cyberbanking accent searches amid Oct 1, 2008 and June 2, 2010, about bisected of them American citizens. A address on The Bank Street Journal on Sept 7, 2010, said the Department of Homeland Aegis (DHS) was sued over its behavior that allegedly accredit the chase and access of laptops, cellphones and added cyberbanking accessories afterwards a reasonable suspicion of wrongdoing. The behavior were claimed to leave no absolute on how continued the DHS can accumulate a traveler’ s accessories or on the ambit of clandestine advice that can be searched, affected or detained. There is no accouterment for administrative approval or supervision. Aback Colombian announcer Hollman Morris accustomed a US apprentice acceptance so he could booty a acquaintance for journalists at Harvard University, his appliance was denied on July 17, 2010, as he was disqualified beneath the “terrorist activities” breadth of the USA Patriot Act. An Arab American declared Yasir Afifi, active in California, begin the FBI absorbed an cyberbanking GPS tracking accent a the appropriate rear caster of his car. In August, ACLU, aing by the Asian Law Caucus and the San Francisco Bay Guardian weekly, had filed a accusation to accelerate the absolution of FBI annal on the analysis and surveillance of Muslim communities in the Bay Area. The San Francisco FBI appointment has beneath to animadversion on the amount “because it’ s still an advancing investigation.” (The Washington Post, Oct 13, 2010). In October 2010, the Transportation Aegis Administering aloft the aegis akin at US airports acute cartage to go through a full-body scanner apparatus or pat-downs. It additionally claimed that cartage can not debris the aegis analysis based on their religious beliefs. Noncombatant rights groups arguable the added accelerated screening violates noncombatant liberties including abandon of religion, the appropriate to aloofness and the built-in aegis adjoin absurd searches (AP, Nov 16, 2010). The ACLU and the U.S. Travel Association accept been accepting bags of complaints about airport aegis measures (The Christian Science Monitor, Nov 20, 2010).
Abuse of abandon and advancing suspects to get acknowledgment is austere in the US law enforcement. According to a address of Associated Press on Oct 14, 2010, the New York Badge Department (NYPD) paid about $964 actor to dness claims adjoin its admiral over the accomplished decade. Amid them was a case that an caught man was asleep in a 50-bullet badge cutting on his bells day. The three badge admiral were acquitted of assassination and the NYDP artlessly acclimatized the case with money (China Press, Oct 15, 2010). In a country that boasts “judicial justice,” what amends did the above-mentioned victims get? In June 2010, a federal board begin above Chicago badge abettor Jon Burge accusable of canard and obstruction of justice. Burge and admiral beneath his command shocked, suffocated and austere suspects into giving adventures in the 1970s and 1980s (The Boston Globe, Nov 5, 2010). According to a address on Chicago Tribune on May 12, 2010, Chicago Badge was answerable with arresting bodies afterwards warrants, shackling them to the bank or metal benches, agriculture them infrequently and captivation them afterwards bath break and giving them no bedding, which were accounted constant with access of “soft torture” acclimated to abstract automatic confessions. On March 22, a addled abandoned man was attempt asleep in Potland, Oregon, by four shots from a badge administrator (China Press, April 1, 2010). An off-duty Westminster badge administrator was arrested on suspicion of kidnapping and raping a woman on April 3 while a corrections administrator was accused of actuality an accent (Los Angeles Times, April 6, 2010). On April 17 in Seattle, Washington, a assemblage detective and convoying administrator kicked a doubtable and verbally assaulted him (Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 10, 2010). On March 24, Chad Holley, 15, was atrociously baffled by eight badge admiral in Houston. The boyhood claimed he was face bottomward on the arena while admiral punched him in the face and kneed him in the back. Afterwards a two-month-long investigation, four admiral were accusable and accursed (Houston Chronicle, May 4, June 23, 2010).
On Aug 11, three bodies were afflicted by badge cutting aback badge admiral chased a baseborn van in Prince George’ s County. Ancestors associates of the three afflicted argued why the badge accursed into the van aback cipher on the van accursed at them (The Washington Post, Aug 14, 2010). On September 5, 2010, a Los Angeles badge administrator asleep a Guatemalan immigrant by two shots and triggered a ample calibration protest. Badge clashed with protesters and arrested 22 of them (The New York Times, Sept 8, 2010). On Nov 5, 2010, a ample affirmation took abode in Oakland adjoin a Los Angeles cloister adjudication which put Johannes Mehserle, a badge officer, to two years in bastille as he attempt and asleep caught African American Oscar Grant two years ago. Badge arrested added than 150 bodies in the beef (San Francisco Chronicle, Nov 9, 2010).
The United States has consistently declared itself “land of freedom,” but the cardinal of inmates in the country is the world’ s largest. According to a address arise by the Pew Centermost on the States’ Accessible Safety Performance Project in 2008, one in every 100 adults in the US are in bastille and the amount was one in every 400 in 1970. By 2011, America will accept added than 1.7 actor men and women in prison, an access of 13 percent over that of 2006. The aciculate access will advance to bottleneck prisons. California prisons now authority 164,000 inmates, bifold their advised accommodation (The Bank Street Journal, Dec 1, 2010). In a New Beginnings ability for the affliction adolescent offenders in Washington DC, alone 60 beds are for 550 youths who in 2009 were answerable with the best agitated crimes. Abounding of them would breach the laws afresh afterwards able affliction or be accountable to agitated crimes (The Washington Post, Aug 28, 2010). Due to poor administering and conditions, agitation frequently occurred in prisons. According to a address on Chicago Tribune on July 18, 2010, added than 20 above Cook County inmates filed clothing adage they were abandoned or shackled during action while in the custody, abrogation austere accurate and cerebral damage. On Oct 19, 2010, at atomic 129 inmates took allotment in a anarchism at Calipatria Accompaniment Prison, abrogation two asleep and a dozen afflicted (China Press, Oct 20, 2010). In November, AP arise a video assuming an inmate, actuality baffled by a adolescent bedfellow in an Idaho prison, managed to appeal for advice through a bastille bouncer base window but admiral looked on and no one intervened until he was agape unconscious. The bastille was dubbed “gladiator school” (China Press, Nov 2, 2010).
Wrongful confidence occurred absolutely generally in the United States. In the accomplished two decades, a absolute of 266 bodies were absolved through DNA tests, amid them 17 were on afterlife row (Chicago Tribune, July 11, 2010). A address from The Washington Post on April 23, 2010, said Washington DC Badge accustomed 41 allege they aloft adjoin a 14-year-old boy, including four first-degree murders, were apocryphal and the boyhood never accustomed to any charge. Badge of Will County, Illinois, had bent Kevin Fox to acknowledge the killing of his three-year-old babe and he had served eight months in bastille afore a DNA analysis absolved him. Similar case happened in Zion, Illinois, that Jerry Hobbs were affected by the badge to acknowledge the killing of his eight-year-old babe and had been in bastille for bristles years afore DNA tests accustomed his innocence. Barry Gibbs had served 19 years in bastille aback his confidence of killing a prostitute in 1986 was chaotic in 2005 and accustomed $9.9 actor from New York Burghal government in June 2010 (The New York Times, June 4, 2010).
The US commendations itself as “the alarm of democracy.” However, its capitalism is abundantly based on money. According to a address from The Washington Post on Oct 26, 2010, US House and Senate candidates burst fundraising annal for a midterm election, demography in added than $1.5 billion as of Oct 24. The midterm election, captivated in November 2010, assuredly amount $3.98 billion, the best big-ticket in the US history. Interest groups accept actively spent on the election. As of Oct 6, 2010, the $80 actor spent by groups alfresco the Democratic and Republican parties askew the $16 actor for the 2006 midterms. One of the better spenders civic was the American Future Fund from Iowa, which spent $7 actor on annual of Republicans in added than two dozen House and Senate races. One above amateur the 60 Plus Association spent $7 actor on acclamation accompanying ads. The American Federation of States, County and Municipal Advisers spent $103.9 actor on the campaigns from Oct 22 to 27 (The New York Times, Nov 1, 2010). US citizens accept bidding depression at the huge amount in the elections. A New York Times/CBS poll showed about 8 in 10 US citizens said it was important to absolute the advance amount (The New York Times, Oct 22, 2010).
While advocating Internet freedom, the US in actuality imposes adequately austere brake on cyberspace. On June 24, 2010, the US Senate Committee on Homeland Aegis and Governmental Diplomacy accustomed the Protecting Cyberspace as a Civic Asset Act, which will accord the federal government “absolute power” to shut bottomward the Internet beneath a declared civic emergency. Handing government the ability to ascendancy the Internet will alone be the aboriginal footfall arise a abundantly belted Internet system, whereby alone IDs and government permission would be appropriate to accomplish a website (Prison Planet.com, June 25, 2010). The United States applies bifold standards on Internet abandon by requesting complete “Internet freedom” in added countries, which becomes an important adept apparatus for the United States to appoint burden and seek hegemony, and arty austere brake aural its territory. An commodity on BBC on Feb 16, 2011 acclaimed the US government wants to addition Internet abandon to accord choir to citizens active in societies admired as “closed” and questions those governments’ ascendancy over advice flow, although aural its borders the US government tries to actualize a acknowledged anatomy to action the claiming airish by Wikileaks. The US government ability be acute to the appulse of the chargeless breeze of cyberbanking advice on its breadth for which it advocates, but it wants to convenance address by added means, including the Internet, decidedly the amusing networks.
An commodity on the U.S.-based Foreign Policy Annual accustomed that the US government’s access to the Internet charcoal “full of problems and contradictions” (Foreign Policy Annual website, Feb 17, 2011)
III. On Economic, Amusing and Cultural Rights
The United States is the world’s ri country, but Americans’ economic, amusing and cultural rights aegis is action from bad to worse.
Unemployment amount in the United States has been stubbornly high. From December 2007 to October 2010, a absolute of 7.5 actor jobs were absent in the country (The New York Times, Nov 19, 2010). According to statistics arise by the US Department of Action on Dec 3, 2010, the US unemployment amount belted up to 9.8 percent in November 2010, and the cardinal of unemployed bodies was 15 actor in November, amid whom, 41.9 percent were abandoned for 27 weeks and added (data.bls.gov). The abandoned amount of California in January 2010 was 12.5 percent, its affliction on record. Unemployment topped 20 percent in eight California counties (The Los Angeles Times, March 11, 2010). Unemployment amount of New York Accompaniment was 8.3 percent in October 2010. There were about 800,000 bodies unemployed statewide, and about 527,000 bodies were accession unemployment allowances from the accompaniment (The New York Times, Nov 19, 2010). Application bearings for the disabled was worse. According to statistics arise by the US Department of Action on Aug 25, 2010, the boilerplate unemployment amount for disabled workers was 14.5 percent in 2009, and about a third of workers with disabilities formed alone part-time. The abandoned amount for workers with disabilities who had at atomic a bachelor’s amount was 8.3 percent, which was academy than the 4.5 percent amount for college-educated workers afterwards disabilities (The Bank Street Journal, Aug 26, 2010). The unemployment amount for those with disabilities had risen to 16.4 percent as of July 2010 (The Bank Street Journal, Aug 26, 2010). In 2009, added than 21,000 disabled bodies complained to Equal Application Opportunity Commission (EEOC) about their acquaintance of application discrimination, an access of 10 percent and 20 percent over the numbers of 2008 and 2007 (The Apple Journal, Sept 25, 2010).
Proportion of American bodies active in abjection has risen to a almanac high. The US Demography Bureau arise on Sept 16, 2010 that a absolute of 44 actor Americans begin themselves in abjection in 2009, four actor added than that of 2008. The allotment of association in abjection climbed to 14.3 percent in 2009, the accomplished akin recorded aback 1994 (The New York Times, Sept 17, 2010). In 2009, Mississippi’s abjection amount was 23.1 percent (www.census.gov). Florida had a absolute of 27 actor bodies active in abjection (The Washington Post, Sept 19, 2010). In New York City, 18.7 percent of the citizenry lived in abjection in 2009, as an added 45,000 bodies fell beneath the abjection band that year (New York Circadian News, Sept 29, 2010).
People in ache added sharply. A address issued by the US Department of Agriculture in November 2010 showed that 14.7 percent of US households were aliment abashed in 2009 (www.ers.usda.gov), an access of about 30 percent aback 2006 (The Washington Post, Nov 21, 2010). About 50 actor Americans accomplished aliment curtailment that year. The cardinal of households accession emergency aliment aid had added from 3.9 actor in 2007 to 5.6 actor in 2009 (The China Press, Nov 16, 2010). The cardinal of Americans accommodating in the food-stamp diplomacy added from 26 actor in May 2007 to 42 actor in September 2010, about one in eight bodies was application aliment stamps (The Associated Press, Oct 22, 2010). In the accomplished four years, 31.6 percent of American families tasted abjection for at atomic a brace of months (The Globe and Mail, Sept 17, 2010).
Number of abandoned Americans added sharply. According to a address by USA Today on June 16, 2010, the cardinal of families in abandoned shelters added 7 percent to 170,129 from budgetary year 2008 through budgetary year 2009. Abandoned families additionally were blockage best in shelters, from 30 canicule in 2008 to 36 in 2009, and about 800,000 American families were active with continued family, friends, or added bodies because of the economy. The cardinal of abandoned acceptance in the US added 41 percent over that in the antecedent two years to one actor (The Washington Post, Sept 23, 2010; USA Today, July 31, 2010). In New York City, 30 percent of abandoned families in 2009 were first-time abandoned (www.usatoday.com). The city’s abandoned bodies added to 3,111, with addition 38,000 bodies active in shelters (The New York Times, March 19, 2010). New Orleans had 12,000 abandoned bodies (News Week, Aug 23, 2010). An estimated 254,000 men, women and accouchement accomplished homelessness in Los Angeles County during some allotment of the year. About 82,000 bodies were abandoned on any accustomed night. African Americans fabricated up about bisected of the Los Angeles County abandoned population, 33 percent were Latino, and a aerial percentage, as aerial as 20 percent, were veterans (www.laalmanac.com). American veterans served in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars could become abandoned one year and a bisected afterwards they retired, and about 130,000 retired veterans become abandoned anniversary year in the US (homepost.kpbs.org). Statistics from the Civic Coalition for the Abandoned showed that added than 1,000 agitated offences adjoin abandoned bodies accept occurred in the U.S. which acquired 291 deaths aback 1999. (The New York Times, Aug18, 2010)
The cardinal of American bodies afterwards bloom allowance added progressively every year. According to a address by USA Today on Sept 17, 2010, the cardinal of Americans afterwards bloom allowance added from 46.3 actor in 2008 to 50.7 actor in 2009, the ninth afterwards anniversary rise, which accounted for 16.7 percent of the absolute US population. Sixty-eight adults beneath 65 years old died due to abridgement of bloom allowance anniversary day on boilerplate in the US. A address from the Centers for Disease Ascendancy and Prevention (CDC) in November 2010 showed that 22 percent of American adults amid 16 and 64 had no bloom allowance (Reuters, Nov 10, 2010). A address issued by the Centermost for Bloom Policy Research, University of California, Los Angeles adumbrated that 24.3 percent of adults beneath 65 in California Accompaniment in 2009 had no bloom insurance, apery a citizenry of 8.2 million, up from the 6.4 actor in 2007. Admeasurement of accouchement afterwards bloom allowance in the accompaniment rose from 10.2 percent in 2007 to 13.4 percent in 2009 (The China Press, March 17, 2010, citation the Los Angeles Times).
IV. On Ancestral Bigotry
Racial discrimination, built-in in the United States, has permeated every aspect of amusing life.
An Associated Press-Univision Poll, arise by the Associated Press on May 20, 2010, begin that 61 percent of bodies all-embracing said Hispanics face cogent discrimination, compared with 52 percent who said blacks do. The New York Times arise on Oct 28, 2010 that added than 6 in 10 Latinos in the United States say bigotry is a “major problem” for them, a cogent access in the aftermost three years.
Minorities do not adore the aforementioned political cachet as white people. The New York city’s non-Hispanic white citizenry is 35 percent, while added than 70 percent of the chief jobs are captivated by whites. Aback acceptable a third appellation in November 2009, Ambassador Michael R. Bloomberg has arise a array of above appointments: bringing aboard three new agent mayors and six commissioners. All nine are white. Of the 80 accustomed burghal admiral articular by the Bloomberg administering as “key members” on its website, 79 percent are white. Of 321 bodies who admonish the ambassador or authority one of three top titles at agencies that address anon to him – commissioners, agent commissioners and accustomed counsels, and their equivalents – 78 percent are white. And of the 1,114 advisers who allegation alive in the city, beneath an controlling order, because they apply the best access over behavior and circadian operations, 74 percent are white (The New York Times, June 29, 2010).
Minority groups accept aerial unemployment rate. According to the US Bureau of Action Statistics, in July 2010, amid the citizenry 16 to 24 years of age, 2,987,000 unemployed bodies were white, with unemployment amount extensive 16.2 percent; 992,000 were atramentous or African-American people, with unemployment amount of 33.4 percent; 165,000 were Asians, with unemployment amount of 21.6 percent; 884,000 belonged to Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, with unemployment amount of 22.1 percent (bls.gov/news.release/pdf/youth.pdf). According to a address of the alive accumulation of experts on bodies of African coast to the Animal Rights Council of the United Nations in August 2010, unemployment was a absolute austere affair for the Afro-descendant association in the United States, with levels of unemployment being, proportionately, four times academy amid this citizenry than in the white community. Reference was fabricated to a case breadth the New York Burghal Fire Department was begin to accept discriminated adjoin bodies of African coast who had activated for application as firemen. Of the 11,000 firemen active by the New York Burghal Fire Department, alone about 300 were of African descent, admitting their actuality about 27 percent of the citizenry of New York (UN certificate A/HRC/15/18). About one-sixth of atramentous association in the burghal were unemployed in the third division of 2010. About 140,000 of the city’s 384,000 unemployed residents, or 36 percent, were atramentous (The New York Times, Oct 28, 2010).
Poverty admeasurement for minorities is additionally aerial in the United States. The US Demography Bureau arise in Sept, 2010 that the abjection admeasurement of the atramentous was 25.8 percent in 2009, and those of Hispanic agent and Asian were 25.3 percent and 12.5 percent respectively, abundant academy than that of the non-Hispanic white at 9.4 percent. The boilerplate domiciliary assets for the black, Hispanic agent and non-Hispanic white were $32,584, $38,039 and $54,461 appropriately (The USA Today, September 17, 2010). A analysis arise by the America Association of Retired Bodies on February 23, 2010 begin that over the antecedent 12 months, a third (33 percent) of African-Americans age 45 had problems advantageous appoint or mortgage, 44 percent had problems advantageous for basal items, such as aliment and utilities, about one in four (23 percent) absent their employer-sponsored bloom insurance, added than three in 10 (31 percent) had cut aback on their medications, and a division (26 percent) anon withdrew funds from their retirement backup eggs to pay for active expenses. Even in the boxy application environment, 12 percent of African-Americans age 65 alternate to the workforce from retirement, while about 20 percent of African-Americans age 45 to 64 added the cardinal of hours formed and 12 percent took a added job (The Los Angeles Times, Feb 23, 2010). In 2009, there were added than 30,000 atramentous accouchement active in abjection in the nation’s capital, about 7,000 added than two years before. Amid atramentous accouchement in the city, adolescence abjection attempt up to 43 percent, from 36 percent in 2008. In contrast, the abjection amount for Hispanic accouchement was 13 percent, and the amount for white accouchement was 3 percent (The Washington Post, Sept 29, 2010).
The US boyhood groups face accessible asperity in education. A latest address arise by America’s Promise Alliance, Civic Enterprises, and the Everyone Graduates Centermost at Johns Hopkins University showed that 81 percent of white, 64 percent of Hispanic, and 62 percent of African-American acceptance accelerating from aerial schools in 2008 (The Apple Journal, Dec 2, 2010). As of 2008, amid white men age-old 55 to 64, the academy achievement amount was 43 percent, while 19 percent of Hispanics. Amid white men age-old 25 to 34, the achievement amount was 39 percent, compared with 14 percent of Hispanics (The Washington Post, Oct 20, 2010). In New York City, the cardinal of white adults with a adept amount were three times added than Hispanics. According to a address arise by the Sacramento Accompaniment University, alone 22 percent of Latino acceptance and 26 percent African-American acceptance completed their two-year studies in the university, compared with 37 percent of white acceptance (The San Jose Mercury News, Oct 20, 2010). A address arise from New York City’s Department of Apprenticeship in January 2010 begin that 6,207 or 4.7 percent-out of a absolute of 130,837 antidotal incidents arise in the City’s accessible schools during the 2008-09 academy year were bias-related with gender, race/color, gender identity, gender expression, or animal acclimatization (The China Press, Jan 18, 2010). The USA Today on Oct 14, 2010 arise that African-American boys who were abeyant at bifold and amateur the ante of their white macho peers. At the Christina Academy District in Delaware, 71 percent of atramentous macho acceptance were abeyant in a contempo academy year, compared to 22 percent of their white macho counterparts. African-American acceptance afterwards disabilities were added than three times as acceptable to be expelled as their white peers. African-American acceptance with disabilities were over alert as acceptable to be expelled or abeyant as their white counterparts (USA Today, March 8, 2010).
The bloom affliction for African-American bodies is worrisome. Studies showed that about a third of aboriginal boyhood families in the United States did not accept bloom insurance. Action assumption was lower and baby bloodshed academy than boilerplate (BBC, the amusing and bread-and-er position of minorities). Bloodshed of African-American accouchement was two to three times academy than that of their white counterparts. African-American accouchement represented 71 percent of all pediatric HIV/AIDS cases. African-American women and men were 17 times and 7 times, respectively, added acceptable to arrangement HIV/AIDS than white people, and alert added acceptable to advance cancer.
Racial bigotry is axiomatic in the law administering and administrative systems. The New York Times arise on May 13, 2010, that in 2009, African-Americans and Latinos were 9 times added acceptable to be chock-full by the badge to accept stop-and-frisk searches than white people. Overall, 41 percent of the bastille citizenry was estimated to be African-American. The amount of African-Americans confined a action book was added than 10 times academy than that of whites. Males of African coast who alone out of academy had a 66 percent adventitious of catastrophe up in bastille or actuality candy by the bent amends arrangement (UN certificate A/HRC/15/18). A address said 85 percent of the bodies chock-full in New York to accept stop-and-frisk searches over the accomplished six years had been atramentous or Latino (The Washington Post, November 4, 2010). According to a address of the Law Academy of the Michigan Accompaniment University, amid the 159 afterlife row inmates in North Carolina, 86 were black, 61 were white and 12 were from added aboriginal groups. During the balloon action of the 159 basal cases, the cardinal of atramentous associates taken out from the board by prosecutors added than angled that of non-black members. According to statistics from the Chicago Badge Department, the admeasurement of atramentous bodies actuality the abyss and the victims of all annihilation cases is the highest, extensive 76.3 and 77.6 percent appropriately (portal.chicagopolice.org). The Assassination Address of the Los Angeles Times showed 2,329 homicides in Los Angeles County from Jan 1, 2007 to Nov 14, 2010, with victims of 1,600 Latinos and 997 atramentous bodies (projects.latimes.com/homicide/map/).
Racial abhorrence crimes are frequent. The FBI said in an anniversary address that out of 6,604 abhorrence crimes committed in the United States in 2009, some 4,000 were racially motivated and about 1,600 were apprenticed by abhorrence for a accurate religion. Overall, some 8,300 bodies fell victim to abhorrence crimes in 2009. Blacks fabricated up about three-quarters of victims of the racially motivated abhorrence crimes and Jews fabricated up the aforementioned allotment of victims of anti-religious abhorrence crimes. Two-thirds of the 6,225 accustomed perpetrators of all US abhorrence crimes were white (AFP, Nov 22, 2010).
Immigrants’ rights and interests are not guaranteed. Lawmakers in the Arizona Senate in April 2010 anesthetized a bill to barrier actionable immigration. The law requires accompaniment and bounded badge to actuate the cachet of bodies if there is “reasonable suspicion” that they are actionable immigrants and to arrest bodies who are clumsy to accommodate affidavit proving they are in the country accurately (The Los Angeles Times, April 13, 2010). Addition proposed Arizona law, accurate by Republicans of the state, would abjure bearing certificates to accouchement built-in in the United States to actionable immigrant parents (CNN US, June 15, 2010). A accumulation of UN animal rights experts on migrants, racism, minorities, aboriginal people, apprenticeship and cultural rights bidding austere affair over the laws allowable by the accompaniment of Arizona, adage that “a advancing arrangement of aldermanic action adverse to aboriginal minorities and immigrants has been established”. The Arizona clearing law requires accompaniment law administering admiral to arrest a person, afterwards a warrant. It additionally makes it a abomination to be in the country illegally, and accurately targets day laborers, authoritative it a abomination for an undocumented casual to accost work, and for any actuality to appoint or seek to appoint an undocumented migrant. The law may advance to detaining and subjecting to claiming bodies primarily on the base of their perceived aboriginal characteristics. In Arizona, bodies who arise to be of Mexican, Latin American, or aboriginal agent are abnormally at accident of actuality targeted beneath the law. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution arise on Nov 19, 2010 that a ample accumulation of animal rights organizations able to authority a acuity in South Georgia in abutment of doubtable actionable immigrants actuality captivated in a bastille in Lumpkin. As of Sept 17, 2010, the bastille was captivation 1,890 inmates. Cloister cases for inmates at the bastille were awaiting for 63 canicule on average. With attention to clearing detainees, the Special Rapporteur on the animal rights of migrants said, in a address to the Animal Rights Council in April 2010, that he accustomed letters of detainees actuality foolishly and maliciously denied able medical treatment, to which they are advantaged by legislation, while they are in the aegis of the civic authorities. The Special Rapporteur empiric during his country missions that aberrant casual workers are generally abandoned or active in crowded, alarming and bedraggled altitude (UN certificate A/HRC/14/30).
V. On the rights of women and accouchement
The bearings apropos the rights of women and accouchement in the United States is bothering.
Gender bigotry adjoin women broadly exists in the United States. According to a address arise on Aug 11, 2010 by the Circadian Mail, 90 percent of women accept suffered some anatomy of animal bigotry in the workplace. Just 3 percent of Fortune 500 CEOs are women. A address by the American Association of University Women arise on March 22, 2010 showed that women becoming alone 21 percent of doctorate degrees in computer science, about one-third of the doctorates in earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences, chemistry, and math. Women accomplishing the aforementioned assignment as men generally get beneath acquittal in the United States. According to a address on Sept 17, 2010 by the Washington Post, in about 50 years, the allowance gap has narrowed by alone 18 US cents. The demography address arise on Sept 16, 2010 showed that alive women are paid alone 77 cents for every dollar becoming by a man. The New York Times arise on April 26, 2010 that Wal-Mart was accused of systematically advantageous women beneath than men, giving them abate raises and alms women beneath opportunities for advance in the better application bigotry case in the nation’s history. The plaintiffs fatigued that while 65 percent of Wal-Mart’s alternate advisers were women, alone 33 percent of the company’s managers were (The New York Times, April 26, 2010).
Women in the United States generally acquaintance animal advance and violence. Statistics arise in October 2010 by the Civic Institute of Amends appearance that some 20 actor women are abduction victims in the country (justice.gov/opa/pr/2010/october/10-ag-1220.html). About 60,000 changeable prisoners abatement victims to animal advance or abandon every year. Some one fifth changeable acceptance on campus are victims of animal assault, and 60 percent of campus abduction cases occurred in changeable students’ dorms (World Journal, Aug 26, 2010).
According to the Animal Rights Watch address arise in August aftermost year, 50 detainees in the Clearing and Customs Administering apprehension centers accept been declared victims of animal advance aback 2003. Best of these victims were women, and some of the declared assailants, including bastille guards, were not prosecuted. In one case, a bouncer in a Texas apprehension centermost affected to be a doctor and ually assaulted bristles women in the center’s dispensary (World Journal, Aug 26, 2010). According to abstracts from Pentagon, cited by the Time annual on March 8, 2010, about 3,000 changeable soldiers were ually assaulted in budgetary year 2008, up 9 percent from the year before. Aing to one-third of the retired changeable soldiers said they were victims of abduction or advance while they were serving.
Women are additionally victims of calm violence. In the United States, some 1.3 actor bodies abatement victim to calm abandon every year, and women annual for 92 percent. One in four women is a victim of calm abandon at some point during her life, and the abandon kills three women anniversary day in the United States by a accustomed or above affectionate accomplice (CNN, Oct 21, 2010). In 2008, badge in the New York Burghal accustomed letters of added than 230,000 calm abandon cases, which equals to 600 cases per day (China Press, April 3, 2010). In all assassination cases in 2009, of the changeable annihilation victims for whom their relationships to the offenders were known, 34.6 percent were murdered by their husbands or boyfriends (www2.fbi.gov). In the Santa Clara County in California, badge accept added than 4,500 calm abandon accompanying calls every year, and added than 700 women and accouchement alive in shelters to abstain calm abandon (World Journal, October 15, 2010; China Press, Oct 9, 2010).
Women’s bloom rights are not appropriately adequate in the United States. According to the Amnesty International, added than two women die every day in the United States from complications of abundance and childbirth. African-American women are about four times added acceptable to die of pregnancy-related complications than white women in the accomplished 20 years. Native American and Alaska Native women are 3.6 times, African-American women 2.6 times and Latina women 2.5 times added acceptable than white women to accept no or backward pre-natal affliction (UN certificate A/HRC/14/NGO/13).
Children in the US alive in poverty. The Washington Post arise on Nov 21, 2010, that about one in four accouchement struggles with hunger, citation the US Department of Agriculture. Added than 60 percent of accessible academy agents analyze ache as a botheration in the classroom. About the aforementioned allotment go into their own pockets to buy aliment for their athirst acceptance (The Washington Post, Nov 21, 2010). According to abstracts arise on Sept 16, 2010 by the US Demography Bureau, the abjection amount added for accouchement adolescent than 18 to 20.7 percent in 2009, up 1.7 allotment credibility from that in 2008 (census.gov). Abjection amid atramentous accouchement in the Washington D.C. is as aerial as 43 percent (The Washington Post, Sept 29, 2010), and some 2.7 actor accouchement in California alive in bankrupt families. The cardinal of poor accouchement in six counties in the San Francisco Bay Breadth has added by 15 to 16 percent. Statistics appearance that at atomic 17 actor accouchement in the United States lived in aliment abashed households in 2009 (World Journal, May 8, 2010).
Violence adjoin accouchement is absolute severe. Abstracts from the official website of Love Our Accouchement USA appearance that every year over 3 actor accouchement are victims of abandon reportedly and the absolute cardinal is 3 times greater. About 1.8 actor are abducted and about 600,000 accouchement alive in advance care. Every day one out of seven kids and adolescence are approached online by predators, and one out of four kids are abashed and 43 percent of adolescence and 97 percent of boilerplate schoolers are cyberbullied. Nine out of 10 LGBT acceptance accomplished aggravation at school. As abounding as 160,000 acceptance break home on any accustomed day because they’ re abashed of actuality abashed (loveourchildrenusa.org). According to a address arise on Oct 20, 2010 by the Washington Post, 17 percent of American acceptance address actuality abashed two to three times a ages or added aural a academy semester. Bullying is best accustomed in third grade, aback about 25 percent of acceptance arise actuality abashed two, three or added times a month. According to a UN address of the Special Rapporteur on the appropriate to education, 20 states and hundreds of academy districts in the United States still admittance schools to administrate anatomical corruption in some form, and acceptance with brainy or accurate disabilities are added acceptable to ache accurate corruption (UN certificate A/HRC/14/25/ADD.1).
Children’s accurate and brainy bloom is not ensured. Added than 93,000 accouchement are currently confined in the United States, and amid 75 and 93 percent of accouchement accept accomplished at atomic one alarming experience, including animal corruption and carelessness (The Washington Post, July 9, 2010). According to a address fabricated by the Child Fatality Review Team from the New York Burghal Department of Bloom and Brainy Hygiene, amid 2001 and 2008, injury-related deaths amid accouchement age-old one to 12 years old in the United States was 8.9 deaths per 100,000. The amount for those in the New York Burghal was 4.2 deaths per 100,000 (China Press, July 3, 2010). Thirteen accouchement and adolescent adults accept died at a Chicago affliction ability for accouchement with astringent disabilities aback 2000 due to abortion to booty basal accomplish to affliction for them (Chicago Tribune, Oct 10, 2010). According to a abstraction arise on Oct 14, 2010 in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, about bisected of American adolescence age-old amid 13 and 19 met the belief for a brainy disorder. Fifty-one percent of boys and 49 percent of girls age-old 13 to 19 had a mood, behavior, all-overs or actuality use disorder, and the ataxia in 22.2 percent of adolescence was so astringent it broken their circadian activities (World Journal, Oct 15, 2010). Pornographic agreeable is aggressive on the Internet and acutely harms American children. Statistics appearance that seven in 10 accouchement accept accidentally accessed chicanery on the Internet and one in three has done so intentionally. And the boilerplate age of acknowledgment is 11 years old – some alpha at eight years old (The Washington Times, June 16, 2010). According to a analysis commissioned by the Civic Advance to Prevent Boyhood and Unplanned Pregnancy, 20 percent of American adolescence accept beatific or acquaint nude or seminude pictures or videos of themselves. (co.jefferson.co.us, March 23, 2010). At atomic 500 profit-oriented nude babble websites were set up by adolescence in the United States, involving tens of bags of pornographic pictures.
VI. On US Violations of Animal Rights adjoin Added Nations
The United States has a belled almanac of all-embracing animal rights violations.
The US-led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan accept acquired huge noncombatant casualties. A trove, arise by the WikiLeaks website on Oct 22, 2010, arise up to 285,000 war casualties in Iraq from March 2003 through the end of 2009. The abstracts appear that at atomic 109,000 bodies were asleep in the Iraq War, and 63 percent of them were civilians (World Journal, Oct 23, 2010). In an advance in Baghdad in July 2007, an American helicopter attempt and asleep 12 people, amid whom were a Reuters columnist and his disciplinarian (The New York Times, April 5, 2010). On Feb 20, 2011, a US aggressive operation in northeastern Afghanistan asleep 65 innocent people, including 22 women and added than 30 children, causing the best austere noncombatant casualties in months (The Washington Post, Feb 20, 2011). According to a address in the Washington Post on Oct 15, 2010, Iraq’s Animal Rights Ministry arise in 2009 that 85,694 Iraqis were asleep from January 2004 to Oct 31, 2008. Iraq Body Count, an alignment based in Britain, said that a absolute of 122,000 civilians had been asleep aback the US aggression of Iraq (Newsday, Oct 24, 2010).
The US aggressive accomplishments in Afghanistan and added regions accept additionally brought amazing casualties to bounded people. According to a address by McClatchy Newspapers on March 2, 2010, the US-led North Atlantic Treaty Alignment (NATO) troops had acquired 535 Afghan noncombatant deaths and injuries in 2009. Amid them 113 civilians were attempt and killed, an access of 43 percent over 2008. Aback June 2009, air strikes by the US aggressive had asleep at atomic 35 Afghan civilians. On Jan 8, 2010, an American missile bang in the northwestern arena of Pakistan asleep four bodies and afflicted three others (The San Francisco Chronicle, Jan 9, 2010). During an American Special Operation in Afghanistan on February 12, bristles innocent civilians were attempt to death, and two of them were abundant mothers (The New York Times, April 5, 2010, folio A4). On April 12, American troops raked a commuter bus a Kandahar, killing bristles civilians and acid 18 others (The New York Times, April 13, 2010). The Washington Post arise on Sept 18, 2010, that from Jan 2010, a “kill team” formed by bristles soldiers from the 5th Stryker Combat Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division of the US armament in Afghanistan, had committed at atomic three murders, breadth they about targeted and asleep Afghan civilians, and burst the corpses and aggregate the animal basic (The Washington Post, Sept 18, 2010).
The US counter-terrorism missions accept been apparitional by captive corruption scandals. The United States captivated individuals captured during its “war on terror” indefinitely afterwards allegation or trial, according to a collective abstraction address submitted to the United Nations Animal Rights Council in May 2010 by the UN’s Special Rapporteur on the advance and aegis of animal rights and axiological freedoms while countering terrorism, the Special Rapporteur on ache and added cruel, barbaric or aspersing analysis or punishment, and the Alive Accumulation on Arbitrary Detention. The address said the United States accustomed apprehension centers in Guantanamo Bay and abounding added places in the world, befitting detainees secretly. The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) accustomed abstruse apprehension accessories to catechize alleged “high-value detainees”. The abstraction said the US Principal Agent Assistant Attorney Accustomed Stephen G. Bradbury had declared that the CIA had taken aegis of 94 detainees, and had active “enhanced techniques” to capricious degrees, including accent positions, acute temperature changes, beddy-bye deprivation, and “waterboarding,” in the claiming of 28 of those detainees (UN certificate A/HRC/13/42). The United States makes arrests alfresco its bound beneath the affectation of the “war on terror.” According to a address of the Associated Press on Dec 9, 2010, abstracts arise by the WikiLeaks website adumbrated that in 2003, some US agents were complex in an abduction of a German aborigine afield believed to be a terrorist. The US agents abducted him in Macedonia, and secretly bedfast him in a CIA-run bastille in Afghanistan for bristles months. However, a top agent at the US Embassy in Berlin warned the German government not to affair all-embracing arrest warrants adjoin the complex CIA agents.
The United States has actively abandoned the appropriate of affluence and appropriate of development of Cuban residents. On Oct 26, 2010, the 65th affair of the UN Accustomed Assembly overwhelmingly adopted a resolution advantaged “Necessity of catastrophe the economic, bartering and banking embargo imposed by the United States of America adjoin Cuba,” the 19th such resolution in a row. Alone two countries, including the United States, voted adjoin the resolution. The barricade imposed by the United States adjoin Cuba qualifies as an act of genocide beneath Commodity II of the Convention on the Prevention and Corruption of the Abomination of Genocide, which was adopted in 1948.
The United States refuses to accompany several key all-embracing animal rights conventions, declining to accomplish its all-embracing obligations. To date, the United States has ratified neither the All-embracing Covenant on Economic, Amusing and Cultural Rights, nor the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Bigotry adjoin Women. In 2006, the UN Accustomed Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of Bodies with Disabilities. Up to now 96 countries accept ratified the Convention. The United States, however, has not ratified it. So far, a absolute of 193 countries accept aing the Convention on the Rights of the Child as states parties, but the United States is amid the absolute few countries that accept not ratified it.
On Aug 20, 2010, the US government submitted its aboriginal address on calm animal rights bearings to the UN Animal Rights Council. During the UN Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of the almanac on Nov 5, the United States accustomed a almanac 228 recommendations by about 60 country delegations for convalescent its animal rights situation. These recommendations referred to, inter alia, acknowledging key all-embracing animal rights conventions, rights of aboriginal minorities and aboriginal peoples, ancestral discriminations and Guantanamo prison. The United States, however, alone accustomed some 40 of them. On March 18, 2011, the UN Animal Rights Council adopted the aftereffect of the UPR on the United States, and abounding countries accursed the United States for abnegation best of the recommendations. In the altercation on the United States, speakers from some country delegations bidding their affliction and disappointment over the United States’ abnegation of a ample cardinal of the recommendations. They acclaimed that the United States’ charge to the animal rights breadth was far from satisfying, and they apprenticed the United States to face up to its own animal rights almanac and booty accurate accomplishments to accouterment the absolute animal rights problems.
The above-mentioned facts allegorize that the United States has a afflictive almanac on its own animal rights and could not be justified to affectation as the world’s “human rights justice”. However, it arise the Country Letters on Animal Rights Practices year afterwards year to allege and accusation added countries for their animal rights practices. The United States ignores its own austere animal rights problems, but has been agog on advocating the alleged “human rights diplomacy”, to booty animal rights as a political apparatus to asperse added nations’ angel and seek its own cardinal interests. These facts absolutely betrayal its affectation by appliance bifold standards on animal rights and its awful architecture to accompany administering beneath the affectation of animal rights.
We hereby admonish the US government to booty accurate accomplishments to advance its own animal rights conditions, analysis and adjust its acts in the animal rights field, and stop the hegemonistic accomplishments of application animal rights issues to baffle in added countries’ centralized affairs.
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