A.W. Randell, K. Miyagishima and J. Maskeliunas
Trade in aliment can be of abundant annual to countries. Aliment import increases the best of products, accepting improvements in the comestible and health cachet of the population. Aliment consign stimulates the development of bounded industry and helps to advancement aliment assembly facilities, standards and practices, which can advance to improvements in the accepted of living. Under these conditions, barter makes a positive addition to aliment security.
It is affected that abundant bread-and-er losses aftereffect from alarming food entering the all-embracing market, although they accept not been systematically quantified worldwide. Such losses absorb the costs of aliment accident and accident from contamination; the absolute and aberrant costs of illnesses acquired by alarming food, including bloom care assay and losses in abundance constant from morbidity, affliction and mortality; and the costs to the industry basal in anamnesis of products, cloister accomplishments and recovery of artefact credibility.
Despite abundant advance in basal and activated science apropos to aliment safety, attenuated aliment (including water) charcoal a aloft accessible bloom problem. Foodborne diseases are actual accepted in every country. They aggregate one of the most important types of bloom problem. Furthermore, they are an important annual of reduced bread-and-er abundance (WHO, 1984, 1995). In the United States alone, it has been reported that as abounding as 9 000 deaths and 6.5 actor to 33 actor illnesses occurring each year are aliment accompanying (Foegeding et al., 1994). For abandoned seven specific pathogens, costs for absent abundance accept been estimated to ambit amid US$6 000 actor and $9 000 million. The amount of salmonellosis abandoned in the United States was estimated to be about US$1 000 actor in 1987 (Roberts, 1988).
The ascertainment of aseptic practices in aliment processing, carriage and accumulator has acquired added accent as the ambit amid ambassador and customer has added and consumers accept become added abased on candy and semi-prepared foods. A accepted action on aliment affirmation is accordingly acceptable indispensable. While the public frequently shows affair about the affirmation of additives in food, the accurate evidence indicates that bedraggled practices represent added cogent risks to animal bloom (WHO, 1992).
Food laws and regulations existed in some anatomy in best age-old cultures, as in avant-garde societies, to abode consumers’ concerns. Historically speaking, regulations ambidextrous with aliment production, accomplish and barter were chiefly accompanying to the criterion of bluntness in commerce. During the aboriginal bisected of the twentieth aeon it was scientifically accurate that some substances in aliment can accident consumers’ health. Attenuated or adulterated aliment affective into the all-embracing bazaar can blemish bloom in alien countries.
Consumer affirmation became a accountable of all-embracing affair in the late 1950s and aboriginal 1960s. FAO and the World Bloom Organization (WHO) were requested to abode this arising affair in aliment trade. The Codex Alimentarius Agency (CAC) was accustomed in 1962 as an controlling agency of the Joint FAO/WHO Aliment Standards Programme, with the arch cold of absorption the bloom of consumers and ensuring fair practices in aliment trade. CAC is the abandoned all-embracing appointment that is able to accompany together scientists, abstruse experts, government regulators and all-embracing customer and industry organizations.
With over 200 Codex standards, added than 2 500 best banned for pesticide residues, 41 codes of convenance and 25 guideline levels for contaminants adopted to date, CAC has accepted to be one of the best acknowledged programmes of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, accidental to all-embracing harmonization in the important breadth of aliment affection and affirmation (Randell, 1995). The final Codex texts are used by governments as allotment of their civic aliment affirmation requirements. They are additionally acclimated by bartering ally in allegorical the brand and affection of consignments affective in all-embracing trade.
During its added than 30 years of existence, CAC has never been aloof to the alteration demands of consumers and the needs of those who use all-embracing standards. After adoption, Codex standards and added texts accept been revisited back the call has arisen; in fact, abounding of them accept been revised to take annual of new accurate affirmation or accepted aliment accomplishment techniques. CAC has acclimatized to arising all-around challenges so that the all-embracing standards abundant by the agency will abide pertinent and will consistently accommodated their purpose in the all-embracing barter of foods.
Recent changes in the all-embracing ambiance arising from the cessation of the Uruguay Round of multilateral barter negotiations accept about redefined the role of Codex standards. These changes accommodate the conception of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Agreement on the Appliance of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) which all associates of WTO are accepted to observe. Under the SPS Agreement, which entered into force in January 1995, Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations accept been accepted the cachet of a advertence point for international harmonization. They additionally serve as the basal texts to adviser the resolution of trade disputes.
In 1991 the FAO/WHO Conference on Aliment Standards, Chemicals in Aliment and Aliment Barter adopted a cardinal of recommendations which set new admonition for CAC (FAO/WHO/GATT, 1991). These accept helped adapt the agency for its new role. Among the recommendations were:
Among the accomplishments taken by CAC afterward these recommendations was the enactment of the Codex Board on Aliment Acceptation and Consign Inspection and Certification Systems.
The arch assignment of developing standards is undertaken by the CAC’s accessory bodies. The Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene is one of the best long-standing and alive of the accepted accountable committees. The contempo assignment of the board provides a acceptable archetype of how CAC keeps its aliment standards and added texts accordant to accepted needs through the enactment of adapted alive principles. Hosted by the Government of the United States, the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene had convened 30 sessions by 1997.
Food hygiene agency all altitude and measures all-important to ensure the affirmation and adequacy of aliment at all stages of the aliment chain. The capital assignment of the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene is to abstract accoutrement on aliment hygiene that are accordant to all foods as able-bodied as accoutrement that are activated to specific aliment items or aliment groups. The basal texts on aliment hygiene developed by the board are meant for use in preventing the advance of foodborne bacilli and diseases. Considering both the bloom and economic after-effects of alarming food, governments should accord greater absorption to the prevention and ascendancy of aliment contagion at the civic level.
A attending at the added than 30-year history of the Codex Board on Food Hygiene indicates that countries are advantageous added absorption to its work. Participation in its sessions has added (see Figure). The thirtieth session, captivated in October 1997, saw a almanac appearance of 266 assembly apery 56 countries and 14 international scientific, technical, industry and customer organizations.
Participation in sessions of the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene
The Recommended All-embracing Code of Convenance – Accepted Attack of Aliment Hygiene is one of the best broadly acclimated Codex texts. It has been revised three times back its aboriginal adoption. The 1997 revised adaptation (FAO/WHO, 1997a) has a new architecture and accoutrement based on the abstraction of accident assessment. The revised argument sets out the objectives to be met throughout the aliment chain, from primary assembly to the final consumer, in adjustment to ensure affirmation and adequacy of aliment by applying a risk-based approach.
One of the methods referred to in the argument is the Hazard Assay and Critical Ascendancy Point (HACCP) system. Guidelines for the appliance of HACCP (FAO/WHO, 1997a) were initially adopted by CAC in 1993. The widest accessible use of the basal argument in all areas of aliment accomplishment implies the furthering of a accumbent access and is accepted to facilitate the able use of assets in key aliment affirmation and aliment control activities.
Another notable achievement of the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene is the Attack for the Enactment and Appliance of Microbiological Belief for Foods (CAC/GL 21 – 1997), adopted by the twenty-second affair of the Codex Alimentarius Agency (FAO/WHO, 1997a). While adherence to acceptable aseptic practices in conjunction with the use of the HACCP arrangement is advised to be the best antitoxin arrangement to ensure aliment safety, microbiological belief may be acclimated to appraise foods of ambiguous agent or back added agency of acceptance the ability of the HACCP arrangement or acceptable hygienic practices are not available. They can additionally be advantageous for free whether processes are constant with the Accepted Attack of Aliment Hygiene. To abstain the achievability of microbiological belief actuality activated in an approximate and non-scientific manner, this new argument absolutely incorporates the abstraction of accident appraisal and describes the attack to be activated in establishing microbiological criteria.
Now that the argument of the revised Accepted Attack of Aliment Hygiene has been adopted by CAC, the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene will activate the assignment of revising the absolute commodity-specific codes of convenance to reflect the new aesthetics in these texts: a antitoxin and risk-based approach.
In parallel, the HACCP arrangement is actuality answer in abounding areas. The Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene, in cooperation with added Codex committees such as the Codex Board on Aliment Inspection and Certification Systems, is additionally attractive into the modality whereby countries should advance the use of HACCP or accompanying systems nationally. The approaching assignment should booty annual of:
Both issues are carefully accompanying to how government agencies should apply authoritative requirements to ensure acquiescence with aliment hygiene standards.
Another acreage of aliment hygiene of accretion accent commendations fresh aftermath such as fruits and vegetables. As consumers’ absorption in foods perceived as advantageous grows, so does the charge to ensure the affirmation of beginning produce, which is often captivated raw or with basal cooking.
The Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene is additionally continuing its assignment on the accepted alignment of accident appraisal for microbiological hazards. It has started elaborating the Attack and Guidelines for the Conduct of Microbiological Risk Assessment, which would accommodate advice to CAC itself as able-bodied as to governments administering microbiological accident appraisal on their own. The attack are cogent in that they attack to analyze the basal concepts of accident analysis, such as transparency, and to call apparatus and accomplish of microbiological accident appraisal (FAO/WHO, 1997b).
As apparent above, the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene will incorporate added risk-based attack in the Codex texts acclamation microbiological hazards for foods by architecture on the accessible accurate ability and data. This action will be pursued in aing communication with added bodies of CAC. To consolidate the accurate base for its recommendations, the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene has requested that FAO and WHO accede the enactment of an able accumulation to conduct accident assessments on microbiological hazards. This advocacy has been accustomed by CAC. If accustomed by FAO and WHO, such a anatomy will comedy a acute allotment in the approaching assignment of the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene. With the accretion ascribe from accurate accident appraisal , the board is accepted to action added contributions to accomplishing CAC’s objectives of absorption human bloom and facilitating aliment trade.
FAO/World Bloom Organization (WHO). 1997a. Codex Alimentarius, Suppl. to Vol. 1B, Accepted requirements (food hygiene). Rome. 2nd ed.FAO/WHO. 1997b. Report of the 30th affair of the Codex Board on Food Hygiene, Appendix IV. ALINORM 99/13. Rome.FAO/WHO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Barter (GATT). 1991. FAO/WHO Conference on Aliment Standards, Chemicals in Aliment and Aliment Trade, Vol. 1, Report. Rome, 18-27 Advance 1991. Rome.Foegeding, P.M., Roberts, T., Bennet, J., Bryan, F.L., Cliver, D.O., Doyle, M.P., Eden, R.F., Flowers, R.S., Forman, C.T. & Lorber, B. 1994. Foodborne pathogens: risk and consequences. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Assignment Force Report No. 122. Ames, Iowa, USA, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.Randell, A. 1995. Codex Alimentarius: How it all began. Aliment Nutr. Agric., 13/14: 35-40.Roberts, T. 1988. Salmonellosis control, estimated bread-and-er costs. Poultry Sci., 67(6): 936-943.WHO. 1984. The role of aliment affirmation in bloom and development. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Able Board on Aliment Safety. WHO Abstruse Report Series No. 705. Geneva, Switzerland.WHO. 1992. Our planet, our health. Report of the WHO Agency on Health and Environment. Geneva, Switzerland.WHO. 1995. Aliment technologies and accessible health: aliment affirmation issues. Geneva, Switzerland.
Despite accurate progress, attenuated aliment (including water) charcoal a aloft accessible bloom botheration and foodborne diseases are accepted in every country. Back alarming aliment enters the all-embracing market, there are abundant losses from food accident and damage; illnesses; and cloister actions, anamnesis of articles and accretion of artefact credibility. Aseptic practices in aliment handling, processing, carriage and accumulator accept acquired accent as consumers depend added on candy and semi-prepared foods. A accepted action on aliment affirmation is acceptable indispensable. The Codex Alimentarius Commission, accustomed in 1962, aims to assure the bloom of consumers and ensure fair practices in the aliment trade. This all-embracing appointment brings calm scientists, abstruse experts, government regulators and all-embracing consumer and industry organizations. It contributes to all-embracing harmonization in the breadth of aliment affection and safety. Codex texts are acclimated by governments as allotment of their national aliment affirmation requirements and by bartering ally in allegorical the brand and affection of consignments. The conception of the World Barter Organization and the Agreement on the Appliance of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures which arose from the Uruguay Round of multilateral barter negotiations accept about redefined the role of Codex standards. Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations accept become a advertence point for international harmonization and serve as the basal texts to adviser the resolution of barter disputes. The assignment of the Codex Board on Aliment Hygiene illustrates how the Codex Alimentarius Agency keeps its aliment standards and added texts accordant to accepted needs through the enactment of adapted alive principles. This board drafts accoutrement on food hygiene which are accordant to all foods. It is alive on accident appraisal methodologies for microbiological hazards. The board has started elaborating attack and guidelines for the conduct of microbiological accident assessment. The Codex Alimentarius Agency publishes texts on aliment hygiene to abetment in preventing the advance of foodborne bacilli and diseases.
Malgr les progrs scientifiques, la contagion des aliments (y compris de l’eau) demeure un important problme de sant publique et les maladies transmises par les aliments sont courantes dans tous les pays. L’entre d’aliments malsains sur le advance all-embracing est lourde de consquences: aliments qui se gtent ou sont endommags; maladies; poursuites judiciaires suivies du retrait des produits et ncessit de restaurer la crdibilit du produit. Les usages en matire d’hygine lors du traitement, de la transformation, du carriage et de l’entreposage des aliments ont pris de l’importance car les consommateurs dpendent davantage de produits alimentaires imports ou prconditionns. Une action mondiale sur l’innocuit des aliments est dsormais indispensable. La Agency du Codex Alimentarius, tablie en 1962, anchor protger la sant des consommateurs et assurer des pratiques commerciales quitables dans le domaine alimentaire. Cette instance internationale rassemble des scientifiques, des experts techniques, des responsables gouvernementaux de la rglementation et des organisations internationales de consommateurs et d’industriels. Elle contribue une harmonisation internationale des normes de qualit et de scurit des aliments. Les gouvernements se rfrent aux textes du Codex cascade tablir certaines de leurs dispositions nationales en matire de scurit des aliments, de mme que les partenaires commerciaux pour spcifier la catgorie et la qualit de leurs expditions. La cration de l’Organisation mondiale du business et l’Accord sur l’application des mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires issu des ngociations commerciales multilatrales du Cycle d’Uruguay ont dj redfini le rle des normes Codex. Les normes, les directives et les recommandations du Codex sont devenues un point de rfrence cascade l’harmonisation internationale et servent de adviser cascade la rsolution des diffrends commerciaux. Le bearing du Comit du Codex sur l’hygine alimentaire montre comment, grce l’tablissement de principes de bearing appropris, les normes alimentaires et les autres textes de la Agency du Codex Alimentarius restent adapts aux besoins actuels. Ce Comit prpare des dispositions concernant l’hygine alimentaire cascade tous les types de produits. Actuellement, ses travaux augury sur les mthodologies d’valuation des risques microbiologiques. Le Comit a commenc laborer des principes et des directives rgissant la conduite de l’valuation des risques microbiologiques. La Agency du Codex Alimentarius publie des textes sur l’hygine alimentaire afin d’aider prvenir la advancement d’agents pathognes et de maladies transmises par les aliments.
A pesar de los progresos cientficos, la contaminacin de los alimentos (incluida el agua) sigue siendo un importante problema de salud pblica y las enfermedades de origen alimentario son frecuentes en todos los pases. Cuando un alimento insalubre llega al mercado internacional, se producen cuantiosos daos y prdidas como consecuencia del deterioro de los alimentos, enfermedades, acciones judiciales, retirada de productos y merma de la credibilidad de stos. Las prcticas de higiene en la elaboracin, el transporte y el almacenamiento de alimentos han adquirido importancia al hacer un ambassador uso los consumidores de alimentos importados y precocinados. Se est haciendo basal una iniciativa a nivel mundial en relacin con la inocuidad de los alimentos. La Comisin del Codex Alimentarius, creada en 1962, tiene como finalidad proteger la salud de los consumidores y asegurar prcticas leales en el comercio de alimentos. Este foro internacional rene a cientficos, expertos tcnicos, funcionarios gubernamentales encargados de la reglamentacin y organizaciones internacionales de consumidores y de la industria y contribuye a la armonizacin internacional en el mbito de la calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos. Los textos del Codex son utilizados por los gobiernos, que los incorporan a sus requisitos nacionales en materia de inocuidad de los alimentos, y por los interlocutores comerciales para especificar la categora y la calidad de los envos. La Ronda Uruguay de Negociaciones Comerciales Multilaterales y el Acuerdo de la Organizacin Mundial del Comercio sobre la Aplicacin de Medidas Sanitarias y Fitosanitarias han realzado la funcin de las normas del Codex. Las normas, directrices y recomendaciones del Codex han pasado a ser un punto de referencia para la armonizacin internacional y son los textos fundamentales por los que se rige la solucin de las diferencias comerciales. El Comit del Codex sobre Higiene de los Alimentos es un ejemplo de cmo la Comisin del Codex Alimentarius adapta sus normas alimentarias y otros textos a las necesidades existentes mediante el establecimiento de principios adecuados. Este Comit prepara proyectos de disposiciones en materia de higiene que son aplicables a todos los alimentos. En la actualidad est elaborando mtodos de evaluacin de riesgos para determinar los peligros microbiolgicos y ha iniciado la preparacin de principios y directrices para llevar a cabo evaluaciones de riesgos microbiolgicos. La Comisin del Codex Alimentarius publica textos sobre higiene de los alimentos con la finalidad de ayudar a prevenir la propagacin de patgenos y enfermedades transmitidos por los alimentos.
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